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Cosmological Constraints from the Redshift Dependence of the Alcock–Paczynski Effect: Possibility of Estimating the Nonlinear Systematics Using Fast Simulations
The tomographic Alcock–Paczynski (AP) method is so far the best method in separating the AP signal from the redshift space distortion (RSD) effects and deriving powerful constraints on cosmological parameters using the {$\lesssim 40\,{h}^{-1}\ \mathrm{Mpc}$} clustering region. To guarantee that the method can be easily applied to the future large-scale structure surveys, we study the possibility of estimating the systematics of the method using the fast simulation method. The major contribution of the systematics comes from the nonzero redshift evolution of the RSD effects, which is quantified by {${\hat{\xi }}_{{\rm{\Delta }}s}(\mu ,z)$} in our analysis, and estimated using the BigMultidark exact N -body simulation and approximate COmoving Lagrangian Acceleration (COLA) simulation samp...
Deflating Super-puffs: Impact of Photochemical Hazes on the Observed Mass–Radius Relationship of Low-mass Planets
The observed mass–radius relationship of low-mass planets informs our understanding of their composition and evolution. Recent discoveries of low-mass, large-radius objects (“super-puffs”) have challenged theories of planet formation and atmospheric loss, as their high inferred gas masses make them vulnerable to runaway accretion and hydrodynamic escape. Here we propose that high-altitude photochemical hazes could enhance the observed radii of low-mass planets and explain the nature of super-puffs. We construct model atmospheres in radiative-convective equilibrium and compute rates of atmospheric escape and haze distributions, taking into account haze coagulation, sedimentation, diffusion, and advection by an outflow wind. We develop mass–radius diagrams that include atmospheric lifetimes and haze opacity, which is enhanced by the outflow, such that young (∼0.1–1 Gyr), warm ( T eq ≥ 500 K), low-mass objects ( M c < 4 M ⊕<...
Large-scale Mixing in a Violent Oxygen–Neon Shell Merger Prior to a Core-collapse Supernova
We present a 7 minute long 4 π -3D simulation of a shell merger event in a nonrotating 18.88 {${M}_{\odot }$} supernova progenitor before the onset of gravitational collapse. The key motivation is to capture the large-scale mixing and asymmetries in the wake of the shell merger before collapse using a self-consistent approach. The 4 π geometry is crucial, as it allows us to follow the growth and evolution of convective modes on the largest possible scales. We find significant differences between the kinematic, thermodynamic, and chemical evolution of the 3D and 1D models. The 3D model shows vigorous convection leading to more efficient mixing of nuclear species. In the 3D case, the entire oxygen shell attains convective Mach numbers of ≈0.1, whereas in the 1D model, the convective velocities are much lower, and there is negligible overshooting across convective boundaries. I...
14 N/ 15 N Isotopic Ratio in CH 3 CN of Titan’s Atmosphere Measured with ALMA
The nitriles present in the atmosphere of Titan can be expected to exhibit different {${}^{14}{\rm{N}}/{}^{15}{\rm{N}}$} values depending on their production processes, primarily because of the various {${{\rm{N}}}_{2}$} dissociation processes induced by different sources such as ultraviolet radiation, magnetospheric electrons, and Galactic cosmic rays. For {${\mathrm{CH}}_{3}\mathrm{CN}$} , one photochemical model predicted a 14 N/ 15 N value of 120–130 in the lower stratosphere. This is much higher than that for HCN and {${\mathrm{HC}}_{3}{\rm{N}}$} , ∼67–94. By analyzing archival data o...
Penumbral Brightening Events Observed in AR NOAA 12546
Penumbral transient brightening events have been attributed to magnetic reconnection episodes occurring in the low corona. We investigated the trigger mechanism of these events in active region NOAA 12546 by using multiwavelength observations obtained with the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer, by the Solar Dynamics Observatory , the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph , and the Hinode satellites. We focused on the evolution of an area of the penumbra adjacent to two small-scale emerging flux regions (EFRs), which manifested three brightening events detected from the chromosphere to the corona. Two of these events correspond to B-class flares. The same region showed short-lived moving magnetic features (MMFs) that streamed out from the penumbra. In the photosphere, the EFRs led to small-scale penumbral changes associated with a counter-Evershed flow and to a reconfiguration of the magnetic fields in the moat. The brightening events had one of the fo...
The Great Markarian 421 Flare of 2010 February: Multiwavelength Variability and Correlation Studies
We report on variability and correlation studies using multiwavelength observations of the blazar Mrk 421 during the month of 2010 February, when an extraordinary flare reaching a level of ∼27 Crab Units above 1 TeV was measured in very high energy (VHE) γ -rays with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) observatory. This is the highest flux state for Mrk 421 ever observed in VHE γ -rays. Data are analyzed from a coordinated campaign across multiple instruments, including VHE γ -ray (VERITAS, Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov), high-energy γ -ray ( Fermi -LAT), X-ray ( Swift , Rossi X-ray Timing Experiment , MAXI), optical (including the GASP-WEBT collaboration and polarization data), and radio (Metsähovi, Owens Valley Radio Observatory, University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory). Light curves are produced spanning multiple days before and after the peak of the VHE flare, including over ...
Thaddäus Derfflinger’s Sunspot Observations during 1802–1824: A Primary Reference to Understand the Dalton Minimum
As we are heading toward the next solar cycle, presumably with a relatively small amplitude, it is of significant interest to reconstruct and describe the past secular minima on the basis of actual observations at the time. The Dalton Minimum is often considered one of the secular minima captured in the coverage of telescopic observations. Nevertheless, the reconstructions of the sunspot group number vary significantly, and the existing butterfly diagrams have a large data gap during the period. This is partially because most long-term observations at that time have remained unexplored in historical archives. Therefore, to improve our understanding on the Dalton Minimum, we have located two series of Thaddäus Derfflinger’s observational records spanning 1802–1824 (a summary manuscript and logbooks), as well as his Brander’s 5.5 feet azimuthal quadrant preserved in the Kremsmünster Observatory. We have revised the existing Derfflinger’s sunspot group number with Waldmeier classif...
Constraining the Nuclear Equation of State via Gravitational-wave Radiation of Short Gamma-Ray Burst Remnants
The observed internal plateau of X-ray emission in some short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) suggests the formation of a remnant supramassive magnetar following a double neutron star (NS) merger. In this paper, we assume that the rotational energy is lost mainly via gravitational-wave radiation instead of magnetic dipole (MD) radiation, and present further constraints on the NS nuclear equation of state (EoS) via mass quadrupole deformation and r -mode fluid oscillations of the magnetar. We present two short GRBs with measured redshifts, 101219A and 160821B, whose X-ray light curves exhibit an internal plateau. This suggests that a supramassive NS may survive as the central engine. By considering 12 NS EoSs, within the mass quadrupole deformation scenario we find that the GM1, DD2, and DDME2 models give an M p band falling within the 2 σ region of the proto-magnetar mass distribution for ε = 0.01. This is consistent with the constraints from the MD ...
Electron Beams Cannot Directly Produce Coronal Rain
Coronal rain is ubiquitous in flare loops, forming shortly after the onset of the solar flare. Rain is thought to be caused by a thermal instability, a localized runaway cooling of material in the corona. The models that demonstrate this require extremely long duration heating on the order of the radiative cooling time, localized near the footpoints of the loops. In flares, electron beams are thought to be the primary energy transport mechanism, driving strong footpoint heating during the impulsive phase that causes evaporation, filling and heating flare loops. Electron beams, however, do not act for a long period of time, and even supposing that they did, their heating would not remain localized at the footpoints. With a series of numerical experiments, we show directly that these two issues mean that electron beams are incapable of causing the formation of rain in flare loops. This result suggests that either there is another mechanism acting in flare loops responsible for rai...
Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections as the Driver of Non-recurrent Forbush Decreases
Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the counterparts of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that extend in the interplanetary (IP) space and interact with the underlying solar wind (SW). ICMEs and their corresponding shocks can sweep out galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and thus modulate their intensity, resulting in non-recurrent Forbush decreases (FDs). In this work, we selected all FDs that were associated with a sudden storm commencement (SSC) at Earth, and a solar driver (e.g., CME) was clearly identified as the ICME’s source. We introduce and employ the t H parameter, which is the time delay (in hours) of the maximum strength of the interplanetary magnetic field from the FD onset (as is marked via the SSC), and consequently derive three groups of FD events (i.e., the early, medium, and late ones). For each of these we examine the mean characteristics of the FDs and the associated IP variations per group, as well as the resulting correlations. In additi...
Constraining the Long-lived Magnetar Remnants in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts from Late-time Radio Observations
The joint detection of GW170817 and GRB 170817A indicated that at least a fraction of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) originate from binary neutron star (BNS) mergers. One possible remnant of a BNS merger is a rapidly rotating, strongly magnetized neutron star, which has been discussed as one possible central engine for gamma-ray bursts. For a rapidly rotating magnetar central engine, the deposition of the rotation energy into the ejecta launched from the merger could lead to bright radio emission. The brightness of radio emission years after an SGRB would provide an estimate of the kinetic energy of ejecta and, hence, a possible constraint on the BNS merger product. We perform a more detailed calculation on the brightness of radio emission from the interaction between the merger ejecta and circumburst medium in the magnetar scenario, invoking several important physical processes such as generic hydrodynamics, relativistic effects, and the deep Newtonian phase. We use the model t...
Comparative Study of Data-driven Solar Coronal Field Models Using a Flux Emergence Simulation as a Ground-truth Data Set
For a better understanding of the magnetic field in the solar corona and dynamic activities such as flares and coronal mass ejections, it is crucial to measure the time-evolving coronal field and accurately estimate the magnetic energy. Recently, a new modeling technique called the data-driven coronal field model, in which the time evolution of magnetic field is driven by a sequence of photospheric magnetic and velocity field maps, has been developed and revealed the dynamics of flare-productive active regions. Here we report on the first qualitative and quantitative assessment of different data-driven models using a magnetic flux emergence simulation as a ground-truth (GT) data set. We compare the GT field with those reconstructed from the GT photospheric field by four data-driven algorithms. It is found that, at minimum, the flux rope structure is reproduced in all coronal field models. Quantitatively, however, the results show a certain degree of model dependence. In most cas...
A Nucleosynthetic Origin for the Southwestern Fe-rich Structure in Kepler ’s Supernova Remnant
Chandra X-ray observations of Kepler ’s supernova remnant indicate the existence of a high-speed Fe-rich ejecta structure in the southwestern region. We report strong K-shell emission from Fe-peak elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni), as well as Ca, in this Fe-rich structure, implying that those elements could be produced in the inner area of the exploding white dwarf. We found Ca/Fe, Cr/Fe, Mn/Fe, and Ni/Fe mass ratios of 1.0%–4.1%, 1.0%–4.6%, 1%–11%, and 2%–30%, respectively. In order to constrain the burning regime that could produce this structure, we compared these observed mass ratios with those in 18 one-dimensional Type Ia nucleosynthesis models (including both near- M Ch and sub- M Ch explosion models). The observed mass ratios agree well with those around the middle layer of incomplete Si burning in Type Ia nucleosynthesis models with a peak temperature of ∼(5.0–5.3) × 10 9 K and a high metallicity, Z > 0.0225. B...
The PIPER Survey. I. An Initial Look at the Intergalactic Globular Cluster Population in the Perseus Cluster
We describe the goals and first results of the Program for Imaging of the PERseus cluster of galaxies (PIPER). The first phase of the program builds on imaging of fields obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)/WFC and WFC3/UVIS cameras. Our PIPER target fields with HST include major early-type galaxies including the active central giant NGC 1275, known ultra-diffuse galaxies, and the intracluster medium. The resulting two-color photometry in F475W and F814W reaches deep enough to resolve and measure the globular cluster (GC) populations in the Perseus member galaxies. Here we present initial results for eight pairs of outer fields that confirm the presence of intergalactic GCs (IGCs) in fields as distant as 740 kpc from the Perseus center (40% of the virial radius of the cluster). Roughly 90% of these IGCs are identifiably blue (metal-poor) but there is a clear trace of a red (metal-rich) component as well, even at th...
Peter Pan Disks: Long-lived Accretion Disks Around Young M Stars
WISEA J080822.18–644357.3, an M star in the Carina association, exhibits extreme infrared excess and accretion activity at an age greater than the expected accretion disk lifetime. We consider J0808 as the prototypical example of a class of M star accretion disks at ages ≳20 Myr, which we call “Peter Pan” disks, because they apparently refuse to grow up. We present four new Peter Pan disk candidates identified via the Disk Detective citizen science project, coupled with Gaia astrometry. We find that WISEA J044634.16–262756.1 and WISEA J094900.65–713803.1 both exhibit significant infrared excess after accounting for nearby stars within the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) beams. The J0446 system has >95% likelihood of Columba membership. The J0949 system shows >95% likelihood of Carina membership. We present new Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph optical spectra of all four objects, showing possible accretion signatures on all four stars. We present ground-based and <...
Internal Structure and CO 2 Reservoirs of Habitable Water Worlds
Water worlds are water-rich (>1 wt% H 2 O) exoplanets. The classical models of water worlds considered layered structures determined by the phase boundaries of pure water. However, water worlds are likely to possess comet-like compositions, with between ∼3 and 30 mol% CO 2 relative to water. In this study, we build an interior structure model of habitable (i.e., surface liquid ocean–bearing) water worlds using the latest results from experimental data on the CO 2 –H 2 O system to explore the CO 2 budget and localize the main CO 2 reservoirs inside of these planets. We show that CO 2 dissolved in the ocean and trapped inside of a clathrate layer cannot accommodate a cometary amount of CO 2 if the planet accretes more than 11 wt% of volatiles (CO 2 + H 2 O) during its formation. If the atmosphere holds more than a negligible amount of the CO 2 (>0.01% of the planet mass)...
The NANOGrav 11 yr Data Set: Evolution of Gravitational-wave Background Statistics
An ensemble of inspiraling supermassive black hole binaries should produce a stochastic background of very low frequency gravitational waves. This stochastic background is predicted to be a power law, with a gravitational-wave strain spectral index of −2/3, and it should be detectable by a network of precisely timed millisecond pulsars, widely distributed on the sky. This paper reports a new “time slicing” analysis of the 11 yr data release from the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) using 34 millisecond pulsars. Methods to flag potential “false-positive” signatures are developed, including techniques to identify responsible pulsars. Mitigation strategies are then presented. We demonstrate how an incorrect noise model can lead to spurious signals, and we show how independently modeling noise across 30 Fourier components, spanning NANOGrav’s frequency range, effectively diagnoses and absorbs the excess power in gravitational-wave searches. Thi...
Standing MHD Waves in a Magnetic Slab Embedded in an Asymmetric Plasma Environment: Slow Surface Waves
The field of solar magnetoseismology (SMS) is heavily reliant upon our understanding of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves that occur in many solar features. Building on previous studies of propagating MHD waves in a magnetic slab embedded in a nonmagnetic asymmetric environment, in this study we assume a line-tying boundary condition and use analytical techniques to derive the dispersion relation for linear standing MHD oscillations. The slab is first assumed thin, with arbitrary asymmetry, in order to derive the frequencies of the standing harmonic modes for both slow quasi-sausage and slow quasi-kink waves. Besides this, the asymmetry is assumed to be weak in order to determine the frequency dependence on the width of the slab and the asymmetry of the system, to leading order. For both the quasi-sausage and quasi-kink modes, the derived eigenfrequencies show that the dependence on the asymmetry in the system is much weaker than the dependence on the width of the slab. Using the ...
Applying Noether’s Theorem to Matter in the Milky Way: Evidence for External Perturbations and Non-steady-state Effects from Gaia Data Release 2
We apply Noether’s theorem to observations of main-sequence stars from the Gaia Data Release 2 archive to probe the matter distribution function of the Galaxy. That is, we examine the axial symmetry of stars at vertical heights z , {$0.2\leqslant | z| \leqslant 3\,\mathrm{kpc}$} , to probe the quality of the angular momentum L z as an integral of motion. The failure of this symmetry test would speak to a Milky Way, in both its visible and dark matter, that is not isolated and/or not in steady state. The left–right symmetry-breaking pattern we have observed, north and south, reveals both effects, with a measured deviation from symmetry of typically 0.5%. We show that a prolate form of the gravitational distortion of the Milky Way by the Large Magellanic Cloud, determined from fits to the Orphan stream by Erkal et al., is compatible with the size a...
A Search for MeV to TeV Neutrinos from Fast Radio Bursts with IceCube
We present two searches for IceCube neutrino events coincident with 28 fast radio bursts (FRBs) and 1 repeating FRB. The first improves on a previous IceCube analysis—searching for spatial and temporal correlation of events with FRBs at energies greater than roughly 50 GeV—by increasing the effective area by an order of magnitude. The second is a search for temporal correlation of MeV neutrino events with FRBs. No significant correlation is found in either search; therefore, we set upper limits on the time-integrated neutrino flux emitted by FRBs for a range of emission timescales less than one day. These are the first limits on FRB neutrino emission at the MeV scale, and the limits set at higher energies are an order-of-magnitude improvement over those set by any neutrino telescope.
A Strategy to Search for an Inner Binary Black Hole from the Motion of the Tertiary Star
There are several ongoing projects to search for stars orbiting around an invisible companion. A fraction of such candidates may be a triple, instead of a binary, consisting of an inner binary black hole (BBH) and an outer orbiting star. In this paper, we propose a methodology to search for a signature of such an inner BBH, possibly a progenitor of gravitational-wave sources discovered by LIGO, from the precise radial velocity (RV) follow-up of the outer star. We first describe a methodology using an existing approximate RV formula for coplanar circular triples. We apply this method and constrain the parameters of a possible inner binary object in 2M05215658+4359220, which consists of a red giant and an unseen companion. Next we consider coplanar but non-circular triples. We compute numerically the RV variation of a tertiary star orbiting around an inner BBH, generate mock RV curves, and examine the feasibility of detection of the BBH for our fiducial models. We conclude that sh...
The Formation of a 70 M ⊙ Black Hole at High Metallicity
A 70 {${M}_{\odot }$} black hole (BH) was discovered in the Milky Way disk in a long-period detached binary system (LB-1) with a high-metallicity 8 {${M}_{\odot }$} B star companion. Current consensus on the formation of BHs from high-metallicity stars limits the BH mass to be below 20 {${M}_{\odot }$} due to strong mass loss in stellar winds. Using analytic evolutionary formulae, we show that the formation of a 70 {${M}_{\odot }$} BH in a high-metallicity environment is possible if wind mass-loss rates are reduced by factor of five. As observations indicate, a fraction of massive stars have surface ma...
Thermodynamics of Dipolarization Fronts of Magnetic Reconnection in Anisotropic Plasma: MMS Observations and Resistive Double-polytropic MHD Simulations
Dipolarization fronts (DFs) of magnetic reconnection are a transient field structure accompanied with a sharp increase of magnetic field component normal to plasma sheet and a high-speed plasma flow. The thermodynamics of DFs in the anisotropic plasma, which have not been studied so far, are investigated in this paper using two-dimensional, resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations with double-polytropic energy laws in which two polytropic exponents, γ ∥ and {${\gamma }_{\perp }$} , are used as parameters to describe various thermodynamic conditions. The subscripts ∥ and {$\perp $} denote, respectively, directions parallel and perpendicular to the local magnetic field. Four different types of DFs observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission ( MMS ) in the p...
Modeling the IRIS Lines During a Flare. I. The Blue-wing Enhancement in the Mg II k Line
The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) Mg ii k line serves as a very good tool to diagnose the heating processes in solar flares. Recent studies have shown that apart from the usual red asymmetries that are interpreted as the result of condensation downflows, this line could also show a blue-wing enhancement. To investigate how such a blue asymmetry is formed, we perform a grid of radiative hydrodynamic simulations and calculate the corresponding line profiles. We find that such a spectral feature is likely to originate from the upward plasma motion in the upper chromosphere. However, the formation region that is responsible for the blue-wing enhancement could be located in an evaporation region, in an upward-moving blob, and even an upward-moving condensation region. We discuss how the electron beam parameters affect these different dynamics of the atmosphere.
Two-temperature Radiative Hot Accretion Flow around Neutron Stars
Numerical simulations of radiative two-temperature hot accretion flows (HAFs) around Neutron stars (NSs) are performed. We assume that all of the energy carried by the HAF around a NS will be thermalized and radiated out at the surface of the NS. The thermal photons will propagate outwards radially and cool the HAF via Comptonization. We define {$\dot{m}$} as the mass accretion rate at the surface of the central object in unit of Eddington accretion rate ( {${\dot{M}}_{\mathrm{Edd}}=10{L}_{\mathrm{Edd}}/{c}^{2}$} , with L Edd and c being Eddington luminosity and speed of light, respectively). When {$\dot{m}$} is lower than ∼10 −4 , the cooling of the HAF is not imp...
Trojans in the Solar Neighborhood
About 20% of stars in the solar vicinity are in the Hercules stream, a bundle of stars that move together with a velocity distinct from the Sun. Its origin is still uncertain. Here, we explore the possibility that Hercules is made of trojans , stars captured at L4, one of the Lagrangian points of the stellar bar. Using GALAKOS–a high-resolution N -body simulation of the Galactic disk–we follow the motions of stars in the corotating frame of the bar and confirm previous studies on Hercules being formed by stars in corotation resonance with the bar. Unlike previous work, we demonstrate that the retrograde nature of trojan orbits causes the asymmetry in the radial velocity distribution, typical of Hercules in the solar vicinity. We show that trojans remain at capture for only a finite amount of time, before escaping L4 without being captured again. We anticipate that in the kinematic plane the Hercules stream will depopulate along the bar’s major axis and be visible at ...
The Megamaser Cosmology Project. XI. A Geometric Distance to CGCG 074-064
As part of the survey component of the Megamaser Cosmology Project, we have discovered a disk megamaser system in the galaxy CGCG 074-064. Using the Green Bank Telescope and the Very Large Array, we have obtained spectral monitoring observations of this maser system at a monthly cadence over the course of two years. We find that the systemic maser features display line-of-sight accelerations of ∼4.4 km s −1 yr −1 that are nearly constant with velocity, while the high-velocity maser features show accelerations that are consistent with zero. We have also used the High-Sensitivity Array to make a high-sensitivity very long baseline interferometric map of the maser system in CGCG 074-064, which reveals that the masers reside in a thin, edge-on disk with a diameter of ∼1.5 mas (0.6 pc). Fitting a three-dimensional warped disk model to the data, we measure a black hole mass of {${2.42}_{-0.20}^{+0.22}\times {10}^{7}\,{M}_{\odot }$}
Detailed Iron-peak Element Abundances in Three Very Metal-poor Stars
We have obtained new detailed abundances of the Fe-group elements Sc through Zn ( Z = 21–30) in three very metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≈ −3) stars: BD+03 o 740, BD−13 o 3442, and CD−33 o 1173. High-resolution ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope /Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra in the wavelength range 2300–3050 Å were gathered, and complemented by an assortment of optical echelle spectra. The analysis featured recent laboratory atomic data for a number of neutral and ionized species for all Fe-group elements except Cu and Zn. A detailed examination of scandium, titanium, and vanadium abundances in large-sample spectroscopic surveys indicates that they are positively correlated in stars with [Fe/H] ≤ −2. The abundances of these elements in BD+03 o 740, BD−13 o 3442, CD−33 o 1173, and HD 84937 (studied in a previous paper of this series) are in accord with these trends and lie at the high end of the correlations. ...
Study of the Cosmic Rays and Interstellar Medium in Local H i Clouds Using Fermi -LAT Gamma-Ray Observations
An accurate estimate of the interstellar gas density distribution is crucial to understanding the interstellar medium (ISM) and Galactic cosmic rays (CRs). To comprehend the ISM and CRs in a local environment, a study of the diffuse γ -ray emission in a midlatitude region of the third quadrant was performed. The γ -ray data in the 0.1–25.6 GeV energy range of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and other interstellar gas tracers such as the HI4PI survey data and the Planck dust thermal emission model were used, and the northern and southern regions were analyzed separately. The variation of the dust emission {${D}_{\mathrm{em}}$} with the total neutral gas column density {${N}_{{\rm{H}}}$} was studied in high dust temperature areas, and the ##IMG##
Testing the Solar Activity Paradigm in the Context of Exoplanet Transits
Transits of exoplanets across cool stars contain blended information about structures on the stellar surface and about the planetary body and atmosphere. To advance understanding of how this information is entangled, a surface-flux transport code, based on observed properties of the Sun’s magnetic field, is used to simulate the appearance of hypothetical stellar photospheres from the visible near 4000 Å to the near-IR at 1.6 μ m by mapping intensities characteristic of faculae and spots onto stellar disks. Stellar appearances are computed for a Sun-like star of solar activity up to a star with a mean magnetic flux density that is ∼30× higher. Simulated transit signals for a Jupiter-class planet are compared with observations. This (1) indicates that the solar paradigm is consistent with transit observations for stars throughout the activity range explored, provided that infrequent large active regions with fluxes up to ∼3 × 10 23 Mx are included in the emergence ...
Absolute Calibration Strategies for the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array and Their Impact on the 21 cm Power Spectrum
We discuss absolute calibration strategies for Phase I of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA), which aims to measure the cosmological 21 cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization. HERA is a drift-scan array with a 10° wide field of view, meaning bright, well-characterized point-source transits are scarce. This, combined with HERA’s redundant sampling of the uv plane and the modest angular resolution of the Phase I instrument, make traditional sky-based and self-calibration techniques difficult to implement with high dynamic range. Nonetheless, in this work, we demonstrate calibration for HERA using point-source catalogs and electromagnetic simulations of its primary beam. We show that unmodeled diffuse flux and instrumental contaminants can corrupt the gain solutions and present a gain-smoothing approach for mitigating their impact on the 21 cm power spectrum. We also demonstrate a hybrid sky and redundant calibration scheme and compare it to pure sky-based cal...
Analysis of Multi-hour Continuous Observations of Seven Millisecond Pulsars
Precision pulsar timing can be used for a variety of astrophysical tests, from the detection of gravitational waves to probing the properties of the interstellar medium. Here we analyze various noise contributions to pulsar timing residuals from continuous multi-hour observations of seven millisecond pulsars (MSPs). We present scintillation bandwidth measurements for all MSPs in the sample, some for the first time. We also present scintillation timescale measurements and lower limits for all MSPs for the first time. In addition, we present upper limits on the contribution of pulse phase jitter to the timing residual error for all MSPs. These long observations also allow us to constrain variations in dispersion measures (DMs) on hour-long timescales for several millisecond pulsars. We find that there are no apparent DM variations in any of the MSPs studied on these timescales, as expected. In light of new radio telescopes, such as the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experimen...
A Comparison of Flare Forecasting Methods. IV. Evaluating Consecutive-day Forecasting Patterns
A crucial challenge to successful flare prediction is forecasting periods that transition between “flare-quiet” and “flare-active.” Building on earlier studies in this series in which we describe the methodology, details, and results of flare forecasting comparison efforts, we focus here on patterns of forecast outcomes (success and failure) over multiday periods. A novel analysis is developed to evaluate forecasting success in the context of catching the first event of flare-active periods and, conversely, correctly predicting declining flare activity. We demonstrate these evaluation methods graphically and quantitatively as they provide both quick comparative evaluations and options for detailed analysis. For the testing interval 2016–2017, we determine the relative frequency distribution of two-day dichotomous forecast outcomes for three different event histories (i.e., event/event, no-event/event, and event/no-event) and use it to highlight performance differences between fo...
Mass Accretion toward Black Holes in the Final Phase of Galaxy Mergers
We studied the final phases of galactic mergers, focusing on interactions between supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and the interstellar medium in a central subkiloparsec region, using an N -body/hydrodynamics code. We observed that the mass accretion rate to one SMBH (10 7 M ⊙ ) exceeds the Eddington accretion rate when the distance between two black holes (BHs) rapidly decreases. However, this rapid accretion phase does not last for more than 10 7 yr, and it drops to ∼10% of the Eddington rate in the quasi-steady accretion phase. The second merger event enhances the mass accretion to the BHs; however, this phase takes place on a similar timescale to the first merger event. We also found that the active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback and the mass accretion to BHs can coexist in the central region of merged galaxies, if the amount of feedback energy is given as ##IMG## {$(2\times {10}^{-4}-2\times {10}^{-3})\dot{M}{c}^{2...}
Hot Subdwarf All Southern Sky Fast Transit Survey with the Evryscope
We have conducted a survey of candidate hot subdwarf (HSD) stars in the southern sky searching for fast transits, eclipses, and sinusoidal-like variability in the Evryscope light curves. The survey aims to detect transit signals from Neptune-size planets to gas giants, and eclipses from M-dwarfs and brown dwarfs. The other variability signals are primarily expected to be from compact binaries and reflection effect binaries. Due to the small size of HSDs ( R ≈ 0.2 R ⊙ ), transit and eclipse signals are expected to last only ≈20 minutes, but with large signal depths (up to completely eclipsing if the orientation is edge on). With its 2 minute cadence and continuous observation, the Evryscope is well placed to recover these fast transits and eclipses. The very large field of view (8150 deg 2 ) is critical to obtain enough HSD targets, despite their rarity. We identified ≈11,000 potential HSDs from the 9.3 M Evryscope light curves for sources b...
Simulating Turbulence-aided Neutrino-driven Core-collapse Supernova Explosions in One Dimension
The core-collapse supernova (CCSN) mechanism is fundamentally 3D, with instabilities, convection, and turbulence playing crucial roles in aiding neutrino-driven explosions. Simulations of CCNSe including accurate treatments of neutrino transport and sufficient resolution to capture key instabilities remain among the most expensive numerical simulations in astrophysics, prohibiting large parameter studies in 2D and 3D. Studies spanning a large swath of the incredibly varied initial conditions of CCSNe are possible in 1D, though such simulations must be artificially driven to explode. We present a new method for including the most important effects of convection and turbulence in 1D simulations of neutrino-driven CCSNe, called Supernova Turbulence In Reduced-dimensionality, or STIR. Our new approach includes crucial terms resulting from the turbulent and convective motions of the flow. We estimate the strength of convection and turbulence using a modified mixing-length theory appr...
The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). XIV. The Discovery of Low-mass Galaxies and a New Galaxy Catalog in the Core of the Virgo Cluster
The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) was designed to provide a deep census of baryonic structures in the Virgo cluster. The survey covers the 104 deg 2 area from the core of Virgo out to one virial radius, in the u * griz bandpasses, to a point-source depth of g ∼ 25.9 mag (10 σ ) and a single pixel surface brightness limit of μ g ∼ 29 mag arcsec −2 (2 σ above the sky). Here we present the final catalog of 404 Virgo galaxies located within a 3.71 deg 2 (0.3 Mpc 2 ) region centered on M87, Virgo’s dominant galaxy. Of these, 154 were previously uncataloged and span the range 17.8 mag < g < 23.7 mag (−13.4mag < M g < −7.4 mag at the 16.5 Mpc distance of Virgo). Extensive simulations show that the NGVS catalog is complete down to g = 18.6 mag ( M g = −12.5 mag, corresponding to a stellar mass ##IMG##
Detection of Irregular, Submillimeter Opaque Structures in the Orion Molecular Clouds: Protostars within 10,000 yr of Formation?
We report Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Very Large Array continuum observations that potentially identify the four youngest protostars in the Orion Molecular Clouds taken as part of the Orion VANDAM program. These are distinguished by bright, extended, irregular emission at 0.87 and 8 mm and are optically thick at 0.87 mm. These structures are distinct from the disk or point-like morphologies seen toward the other Orion protostars. The 0.87 mm emission implies temperatures of 41–170 K, requiring internal heating. The bright 8 mm emission implies masses of 0.5–1.2 M ⊙ assuming standard dust opacity models. One source has a Class 0 companion, while another exhibits substructure indicating a companion candidate. Three compact outflows are detected, two of which may be driven by companions, with dynamical times of ∼300 to ∼1400 yr. The slowest outflow may be driven by a first hydrostatic core. These protostars appear to trace an early phase when ...
The VLA/ALMA Nascent Disk and Multiplicity (VANDAM) Survey of Orion Protostars. II. A Statistical Characterization of Class 0 and Class I Protostellar Disks
We have conducted a survey of 328 protostars in the Orion molecular clouds with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at 0.87 mm at a resolution of ∼0.″1 (40 au), including observations with the Very Large Array at 9 mm toward 148 protostars at a resolution of ∼0.″08 (32 au). This is the largest multiwavelength survey of protostars at this resolution by an order of magnitude. We use the dust continuum emission at 0.87 and 9 mm to measure the dust disk radii and masses toward the Class 0, Class I, and flat-spectrum protostars, characterizing the evolution of these disk properties in the protostellar phase. The mean dust disk radii for the Class 0, Class I, and flat-spectrum protostars are {${44.9}_{-3.4}^{+5.8}$} , {${37.0}_{-3.0}^{+4.9}$} , and ##IMG## {${28.5}_{-2....}
GROWTH on S190814bv: Deep Synoptic Limits on the Optical/Near-infrared Counterpart to a Neutron Star–Black Hole Merger
On 2019 August 14, the Advanced LIGO and Virgo interferometers detected the high-significance gravitational wave (GW) signal S190814bv. The GW data indicated that the event resulted from a neutron star–black hole (NSBH) merger, or potentially a low-mass binary BH merger. Due to the low false-alarm rate and the precise localization (23 deg 2 at 90%), S190814bv presented the community with the best opportunity yet to directly observe an optical/near-infrared counterpart to an NSBH merger. To search for potential counterparts, the GROWTH Collaboration performed real-time image subtraction on six nights of public Dark Energy Camera images acquired in the 3 weeks following the merger, covering >98% of the localization probability. Using a worldwide network of follow-up facilities, we systematically undertook spectroscopy and imaging of optical counterpart candidates. Combining these data with a photometric redshift catalog, we ruled out each candidate as the counterpart ...
Role of Intervening Mg ii Absorbers on the Rotation Measure and Fractional Polarization of the Background Quasars
We probed the magnetic fields in high-redshift galaxies using excess extragalactic contribution to residual rotation measure (RRM) for quasar sightlines with intervening Mg ii absorbers. Based on a large sample of 1132 quasars, we have computed RRM distributions broadening using median absolute deviation from the mean ( {${\sigma }_{\mathrm{rrm}}^{\mathrm{md}}$} ), and found it to be 17.1 ± 0.7 rad m −2 for 352 sightlines having Mg ii intervening absorbers in comparison to its value of 15.1 ± 0.6 rad m −2 for 780 sightlines without such absorbers, resulting in an excess broadening ( {${\sigma }_{\mathrm{rrm}}^{\mathrm{ex}}$} ) of 8.0 ± 1.9 rad m −2 among these two subsamples. This value of ##IMG## {$...}
Stellar Characterization of M Dwarfs from the APOGEE Survey: A Calibrator Sample for M-dwarf Metallicities
We present spectroscopic determinations of the effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities for 21 M dwarfs observed at high resolution ( R ∼ 22,500) in the H band as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. The atmospheric parameters and metallicities are derived from spectral syntheses with 1D LTE plane-parallel MARCS models and the APOGEE atomic/molecular line list, together with up-to-date H 2 O and FeH molecular line lists. Our sample range in T eff from ∼3200 to 3800 K, where 11 stars are in binary systems with a warmer (FGK) primary, while the other 10 M dwarfs have interferometric radii in the literature. We define an {${M}_{{K}_{S}}$} –radius calibration based on our M-dwarf radii derived from the detailed analysis of APOGEE spectra and Gaia<...
Are Large Sunspots Dominant in Naked-eye Sunspot Observations for 1819–1918?
This article explores the sizes of sunspots as determined by naked-eye sunspot observations (NSOs). The international sunspot number (ISN), the group sunspot number, and the Greenwich photo-heliographic results (GPR) were utilized. According to the ISN results, 64% of NSOs from 1819 to 1918 have been identified as large sunspots. We found that the sunspot sizes had been considerably underestimated using the ISN data (compared to using the GPR data). About 40% of NSOs from 1819 to 1918 have been identified as giant sunspots, which have ranks of sunspot areas smaller than 5%. The results in this article indicate that the majority of NSOs are large sunspots. This calls into question the previous understanding that NSOs include sunspots of all sizes above the visibility limit.
Detecting and Locating Electromagnetic Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources Using Galactic Dust Scattering Halos
We discuss a technique for detecting and locating rapid transient electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave sources that affords a reprieve of several hours after the gravitational wave event. The technique relies on detecting a scattering halo produced if X-rays emitted at the gravitational wave event scatter off Galactic dust clouds. The travel-time delay of these scattered photons makes them detectable up to several hours after the prompt event; the location of the gravitational wave source will be at the geometric center of the halo, which can be determined with precision sufficient to allow the host galaxy to be identified.
Two Ultra-faint Milky Way Stellar Systems Discovered in Early Data from the DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey
We report the discovery of two ultra-faint stellar systems found in early data from the DECam Local Volume Exploration survey (DELVE). The first system, Centaurus I (DELVE J1238–4054), is identified as a resolved overdensity of old and metal-poor stars with a heliocentric distance of {${\text{}}{D}_{\odot }={116.3}_{-0.6}^{+0.6}\,\mathrm{kpc}$} , a half-light radius of {${r}_{h}={2.3}_{-0.3}^{+0.4}\,\mathrm{arcmin}$} , an age of {$\tau \gt 12.85\,\mathrm{Gyr}$} , a metallicity of {$Z={0.0002}_{-0.0002}^{+0.0001}$} , and an absolute magnitude of ##IMG## {${M}_{V}=-{5.55}_{-0.11}^{+0.11}\,\ma...}
Toward Early-type Eclipsing Binaries as Extragalactic Milestones. II. NLTE Spectral Analysis and Stellar Parameters of the Detached O-type System OGLE-LMC-ECL-06782 in the LMC
We combine the NLTE spectral analysis of the detached O-type eclipsing binary OGLE-LMC-ECL-06782 with the analysis of the radial velocity curve and light curve to measure an independent distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). In our spectral analysis we study composite spectra of the system at quadrature and use the information from radial velocity and light curve about stellar gravities, radii, and component flux ratio to derive effective temperature, reddening, extinction, and intrinsic surface brightness. We obtain a distance modulus to the LMC of m − M = 18.53 ± 0.04 mag. This value is 0.05 mag larger than the precision distance obtained recently from the analysis of a large sample of detached, long period late spectral type eclipsing binaries but agrees within the margin of the uncertainties. We also determine the surface brightnesses of the system components and find good agreement with the published surface brightness–color relationship. A comparison o...
Study of the Dynamics of Convective Turbulence in the Solar Granulation by Spectral Line Broadening and Asymmetry
In quiet regions on the solar surface, turbulent convective motions of granulation play an important role in creating small-scale magnetic structures, as well as in energy injection into the upper atmosphere. The turbulent nature of granulation can be studied using spectral line profiles, especially line broadening, which contain information on the flow field smaller than the spatial resolution of an instrument. Moreover, the Doppler velocity gradient along a line of sight (LOS) causes line broadening as well. However, the quantitative relationship between velocity gradient and line broadening has not been understood well. In this study, we perform bisector analyses using the spectral profiles obtained using the spectropolarimeter of the Hinode /Solar Optical Telescope to investigate the relationship of line broadening and bisector velocities with the granulation flows. The results indicate that line broadening has a positive correlation with the Doppler velocity gradients...
Properties of Binary Components and Remnant in GW170817 Using Equations of State in Finite Temperature Field Theory Models
We investigate gross properties of binary components and remnant in GW170817 using equations of state (EoSs) within the finite temperature field theoretical models. We also adopt finite temperature EoSs in the density-dependent hadron field theory for this study. Properties of binary components are studied using zero temperature EoSs. Particularly, we investigate tidal deformabilities and radii of binary components in light of GW170817. An analytical expression relating the radii and the combined tidal deformability is obtained for binary neutron star masses in the range 1.1 M ⊙ ≲ M ≲ 1.6 M ⊙ . The upper bound on the tidal deformability gives the upper bound on the neutron star radius as 13 km. Next, the role of finite temperature on the remnant in GW170817 is explored. In this case, we investigate the gravitational and baryon mass, radius, Kepler frequency, and moment of inertia of the rigidly rotating remnant for different EoSs ...
Delay Time Distributions of Type Ia Supernovae from Galaxy and Cosmic Star Formation Histories
We present analytical reconstructions of SN Ia delay time distributions (DTDs) by way of two independent methods: by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo best-fit technique comparing the volumetric SN Ia rate history to today’s compendium cosmic star formation history, and second through a maximum likelihood analysis of the star formation rate histories of individual galaxies in the GOODS/CANDELS field, in comparison to their resultant SN Ia yields. We adopt a flexible skew-normal DTD model, which could match a wide range of physically motivated DTD forms. We find a family of solutions that are essentially exponential DTDs, similar in shape to the β ≈ −1 power-law DTDs, but with more delayed events (>1 Gyr in age) than prompt events (<1 Gyr). Comparing these solutions to delay time measures separately derived from field galaxies and galaxy clusters, we find the skew-normal solutions can accommodate both without requiring a different DTD form in different environments. These m...
Average Radial Structures of Gas Convection in the Solar Granulation
Gas convection is observed in the solar photosphere as granulation, i.e., having highly time-dependent cellular patterns, consisting of numerous bright cells called granules and dark surrounding channels called intergranular lanes. Many efforts have been made to characterize the granulation, which may be used as an energy source for various types of dynamical phenomena. Although the horizontal gas flow dynamics in intergranular lanes may play a vital role, they are poorly understood. This is because the Doppler signals can be obtained only at the solar limb, where the signals are severely degraded by a foreshortening effect. To reduce such a degradation, we use Hinode 's spectroscopic data, which are free from a seeing-induced image degradation, and improve the image quality by correcting for stray light in the instruments. The data set continuously covers from the solar disk to the limb, providing a multidirectional line-of-sight (LOS) diagnosis against the granulation. T...
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