The British Journal of Criminology - BJC

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Kriminologie
Oxford University Press Journals Department
0007-0955
jährlich 6 mal
Englisch
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The British Journal of Criminology - BJC

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The British Journal of Criminology is one of the most influential journals in its field in the English speaking language. It is widely consulted by academics and researchers in criminology probation and social work and by professionals concerned with law criminal justice and penology.
Meine Notizen
Crimes of the Senses: Yarn Bombing and Aesthetic Criminology
Yarn bombing involves the display of knitted or crocheted items in public space, often without permission. This article draws on interviews with yarn bombers in the North West of England and considers who the yarn bombers are, their motivations and experiences and their views on the legal status of yarn bombing. Although the visual is important for yarn bombing—and it is therefore of interest to visual criminology—this article also looks further to consider other sensory experience. In this way, it contributes to an emerging aesthetic criminology concerned with broader sensory, affective and emotive experience. Drawing on Thrift’s work on urban affect or mood, as well as Anderson and Young on affective atmospheres, yarn bombing is regarded as a crime of the senses affecting both the look and the feel of the city. The scope for further development of an aesthetic criminology is suggested, including specific methodologies that embrace the full range of sensory experiences associated with crime, disorder or social harm.
Mapping Criminological Engagements Within Radicalization Studies
Radicalization theories positing a process towards violence are de rigueur in policy circles yet solicit mixed reactions within the academy. Attempting to build a more robust theory of radicalization, scholars have turned towards criminology. On the basis of a survey of literature where radicalization engages criminology, this article maps theories taken up to advance knowledge of radicalization as a process towards terrorist violence. The mapping exercise demonstrates a growing spectrum of criminological theories referenced by radicalization studies; however, these engagements have been selective: tending towards individualistic theories with limited (but recent) engagements with constructivist and structural theory. Contributing to critical interventions within the accelerating domains of theorizing radicalization to violence, we conclude that these engagements lack some of criminology’s broader reflexivity about its object of study.
When Peaceful People Fight: Beyond neutralization and subcultural theory
Fights are widespread in society, but for most people it happens once or twice and is not part of a consistent pattern or lifestyle. Using a narrative criminological framework, we study the stories of violence among people who otherwise seldom engage in violent behaviour. The young Norwegians we interviewed, emphasized that their fights emerged as a response to insults, was fuelled by drinking and could be exciting. Participants had negative evaluations of their fights, took the blame for them, talked down their importance and self-critically used humour to ridicule their involvement. Our study demonstrates the shortcomings of subcultural and neutralization theories when it comes to understanding violent behaviour among those who rarely engage in it.
Making Sense of ‘Joint Enterprise’ for Murder: Legal Legitimacy or Instrumental Acquiescence'
The legal doctrine of ‘joint enterprise’ has been heavily criticized for lacking legitimacy, primarily linked to distributive (in)justice. This paper draws on the narratives of ‘joint enterprise prisoners’ serving long life sentences for murder to address such concerns and extend the discussion to questions of ‘legal legitimacy’. Prisoners who were early in their sentences explicitly rejected the legal legitimacy of joint enterprise, while those at a later stage reported ‘accepting’ their conviction and demonstrated ‘consent’ by engaging with their sentence. We argue that rather than representing normative acceptance of the legal legitimacy of joint enterprise over time, this acceptance is a form of instrumental acquiescence associated with ‘dull compulsion’ ‘coping acceptance’ and personal meaning making.
Does Gender Affect the Number and Type of Charges Laid in Intimate Partner Violence Cases'
Pro-charging policies were implemented in Canada in the 1980s to denounce intimate partner violence (IPV). Since pro-charging policies were implemented, the proportion of men charged remains higher than women charged; however, the proportion of women charged increased dramatically. Little is known about the gendered differences in charging decisions in IPV cases. Utilizing a sample of 1,708 accused charged in IPV cases, logistic regression was employed to examine the influence of accused gender on the number of charges laid and the type of primary offence accused were charged with. The findings reveal there are differences between male- and female-perpetrated violence or responses to their violence, requiring more investigation.
Immigrant Perceptions of the Police: The Role of Country of Origin and Length of Settlement
Relationships between police and minority groups have been shown to be strained with members of these groups often viewing police in a more negative light. Distinguishing between minority group and immigrant populations, more recent work has shown that foreign-born individuals are more likely to view the police in a more favourable light than native-born populations. Adding to this literature, we examine group-specific factors that shape foreign-born individuals’ views of the police. We find that country of origin and length of settlement are important factors in better understanding immigrants’ perceptions of the police. The study concludes with a discussion of trust in police and recommendations for future research.
Cooperation with the Police Against Corruption: Exploring the Roles of Legitimacy, Deterrence and Collective Action Theories
In explaining public willingness to cooperate with the police, researchers have disproportionally emphasized legitimacy. Deterrence is presumed to be irrelevant; where it is considered, the approach appears perfunctory. Using survey data from 530 young adults in Ghana, this study examines the relative importance of deterrence and legitimacy perceptions in shaping willingness to report corruption transactions to the police. The results showed that perceptions of legitimacy did not affect the young adults’ willingness to report corruption to the police. The most important and consistent predictors of willingness to report corruption to the police were deterrence-based perceptions, specifically, of the certainty of being apprehended for engaging in corrupt transactions, of the severity of sanctions against such transactions and of the perceived cooperative intentions of other citizens. Deterrence proved particularly salient among those who claimed ignorance of where to report corrupt transactions.
Going Spatial: Applying Egohoods to Fear of Crime Research
A central theme in criminology is how fear of crime is influenced by the residential context. Most researchers rely on administrative neighbourhoods to define context. These administrative units do not necessarily align with how inhabitants experience their local surroundings. The present study combines administrative neighbourhoods with a more innovative way to measure context. Using geocoded survey data (N = 14.620) in combination with detailed geographic information system data, we construct egohoods with different radii (ranging from 50 to 750 m). We find that crime, ethnic diversity, economic status, disorder and facilities all have an effect on feelings of unsafety. The contextual effects differ in size and are not detected in all spatial contexts, indicating that it matters how and to which scale data are aggregated.
Understanding the Differential Effects of Land Uses on Crime: An Examination Across Philadelphia Neighbourhoods
Although criminology presumes that the physical structural qualities of neighbourhoods have important consequences for crime, there is a dearth of research to test the effects of different land uses on crime rates. Using data on a sample of Philadelphia census blocks, I compute the percentage of the block area classified into seven land use categories, and I use Poisson models to test the localized and broader spatial impact of each of these land uses on crime, controlling for key sociodemographic characteristics. The results show that to effectively understand the interplay between physical structure and crime rates, researchers should disaggregate nonresidential land uses, account for the surrounding environment in which neighbourhoods are situated and analyse a specific form of moderation.
Conservation Criminology: Modelling Offender Target Selection for Illegal Fishing in Marine Protected Areas
The emergence of conservation criminology over the past decade provides a unique insight into patterns of wildlife crime. Wildlife crime has a dramatic impact on many vulnerable species and represents a significant challenge to the management of protected areas around the world. This paper contributes to the field of conservation criminology by examining the travel patterns of fishing poachers in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park in Australia. The results demonstrate that distance is a key feature of offender target selection, reflecting the established environmental criminology concept of distance decay. The analysis also reveals a significant relationship between individual no-take zones and regional population areas. The applicability of a nodal-oriented approach to wildlife crime prevention is discussed.
An Unpaid Debt to Society: How ‘Punishment Debt’ Affects Reintegration and Desistance from Crime in Norway
The Scandinavian exceptionalism literature has highlighted the relatively progressive and rehabilitative nature of imprisonment in Norway, with the Norwegian Correctional Services taking the view that those convicted of crimes have paid their debt to society at the end of their sentence. However, other parts of the Norwegian state take a more stringent view, imposing and enforcing significant and persistent debts on offenders. This article, based on official documents and interviews with Norwegian desisters and probation caseworkers, analyses how living with debt poses a major challenge for reintegration and desistance. Referred to informally as ‘punishment debt’, this pervasive but less visible aspect of Norwegian penality demonstrates the need to broaden the penal exceptionalism research agenda beyond the confines of the prison.
(De-)Criminalizing Welfare' The Rise and Fall of Social Security Fraud Prosecutions in Australia
The social security fraud prosecution rate has fallen by approximately 74.9 per cent in Australia since 2010. This is remarkable considering the national dialogue continues to propound a ‘zero tolerance’ approach to fraud in the welfare system. Drawing on interviews with compliance staff from the Australian Department of Human Services, documentary research and a Foucauldian governmentality analytic, this article charts and interrogates the declining welfare fraud prosecution rate in the context of neoliberal welfare reform. It argues that this decline is at least partially the result of the reformulation of the objects of prosecution strategies by staff responsible for their enactment. This finding highlights the importance of localized accounts of welfare administration to supplement and complicate macro analyses of the ‘criminalization of welfare’ in Western industrialized nations.
Youth, Community and the Struggle for Social Justice. (Routledge, 2018, 212 pp. £78.70 hb/£39.20 pb). ISBN: 978-1-315-45621-8
Youth, Community and the Struggle for Social Justice. By GoddardTim and MyersRandy. (Routledge, 2018, 212 pp. £78.70 hb/£39.20 pb). ISBN: 978-1-315-45621-8
Reasons to Doubt: Wrongful Convictions and The Criminal Cases Review Commission
Reasons to Doubt: Wrongful Convictions and the Criminal Cases Review Commission. By HoyleCarolyn and SatoMai ( Oxford University Press, 2019, 414pp. $99 USD)
Dashing Hopes' the Predictive Accuracy of Domestic Abuse Risk Assessment by Police
The Domestic Abuse, Stalking and Honour Based Violence (DASH) form is a standardized risk assessment implemented across most UK police forces. It is intended to facilitate an officer’s structured professional judgment about the risk a victim faces of serious harm at the hand of their abuser. Until now, it has been an open question whether this tool works in practice. Here, we present the largest scale European study, making the case that the risk assessment tool is underperforming. Each element of the DASH questionnaire is, at best, weakly predictive of revictimization. Officer risk predictions based on DASH are little better than random and a logistic regression model that predicts the same outcome using DASH only provides modest improvement in performance.
The Dynamics of Domestic Abuse and Drug and Alcohol Dependency
This article elucidates the dynamics that occur in relationships where there have been both substance use and domestic abuse. It draws interpretively on in-depth qualitative interviews with male perpetrators and their current and former partners. These interviews were undertaken for the National Institute for Health Research-funded ADVANCE programme. The article’s analysis highlights the diverse ways in which domestic abuse by substance-using male partners is compounded for women who have never been substance dependent, women who have formerly been substance dependent and women who are currently substance dependent. The criminological implications of the competing models of change deployed in drug treatment and domestic violence intervention are discussed alongside the policy and practice challenges entailed in reconciling them within intervention contexts where specialist service provision has been scaled back and victims navigate pressures to stay with perpetrators while they undergo treatment alongside the threat of sanction should they seek protection from the police and courts.
‘The Perfect Murder’: An Exploratory Study of Staged Murder Scenes and Concealed Femicide
Presenting cases of criminologically unidentifiable circumstances, authors point to concealment susceptibility of some femicide cases, overlooked by both the criminal system and by scholars, rendering them ‘concealed femicides’. The paper presents descriptive and criminological analyses of Israeli cases whereby the woman’s murder was followed by scene staging. It extrapolates the common characteristics of femicide victims and perpetrators, offers a typology of homicide scene staging behaviour that facilitates domesticity-related femicide concealment and, eventually, introduces tools to enhance exposure of femicide.
Lessons of an Honour Code: A Consideration of Conflict-related Processes and Interpersonal Violence
Criminological research has long suggested that attitudes concerned with honour and aggression, such as the ‘street code’, are related to violent offending and victimization. Comparatively, little information is known, however, about the mechanisms through which these attitudes increase violence. Drawing from interactionist perspectives of aggression and subcultural theories, we examine the mediating role of two conflict-related tendencies: disputatiousness and remedial actions. We also examine the extent to which remedial actions moderate the association between disputatiousness and violence. Predictions are tested using longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States. Results show that conflict-related tendencies mediate the pathways linking the street code to violent offending and victimization. In addition, remedial actions temper the association between disputatiousness and violence involvement.
State Payments to Victims of Violent Crime: Discretion and Bias in Awards for Sexual Offences
State monetary schemes for victims of violent crime began in the 1960s and operate in 35 countries today, yet knowledge is lacking on who is applying, how decisions are reached, variation in awards and why amounts may differ. Analysing 291 sexual offence cases in Queensland, we ask whether awards differ by victim sex/gender and by societal constructs of ideal, real rape, and credible victims. We found that male child victims received higher awards than female child victims for more serious sexual offences and that awards to females aged 12 and older were affected by elements associated with real rape and credible victims. We call upon researchers and governments to pursue and expand this new area of research.
Victims Who Have Done Nothing or Victims Who Have Done Nothing Wrong: Contesting Blame and ‘Innocent Victim’ Status in Transitioning Societies
Building on recent victimological interventions in transitional justice, this article critically examines nuanced interpretations of what an ‘innocent victim’ is in transitioning societies without any agreed legal, political or moral base position on past political violence. It suggests that the term refers to two different types of victims: victims who have done nothing that fit traditional victimological understandings of the blameless, passive ‘ideal victim’ and victims who have done nothing wrong where innocence and blame are open to fundamental political and moral contest. It concludes that the irreconcilability, looseness and adaptability of competing frameworks for understanding the past pose a core victimological disagreement surrounding victims who have done nothing wrong that even a more critically self-reflective approach by victimizers fails to resolve.
Prison Versus Western Australia: Which Worked Best, the Australian Penal Colony or the English Convict Prison System'
Between 1850 and 1868, a natural experiment in punishment took place. Men convicted of similar crimes could serve their sentence of penal servitude either in Britain or in Australia. For historians and social scientists, this offers the prospect of addressing a key question posed over 200 years ago by the philosopher, penal theorist and reformer Jeremy Bentham when he authored a lengthy letter entitled ‘Panopticon versus New South Wales: Or, the Panopticon Penitentiary System, and the Penal Colonization System, Compared’. This article answers the underlying tenet of Bentham’s question, ‘Which was best prison or transportation'’ by applying two efficiency tests. The first tests whether UK convicts or Australian convicts had higher rates of reconviction, and the second explores the speed to reconviction.
‘So, Why Am I Here'’ Ambiguous Practices of Protection, Treatment and Punishment in Danish Secure Institutions for Youth
This article explores how a nexus of punishment, treatment and protection creates unique mechanisms of control in secure institutions for young people. It is based on a study in Danish secure institutions, which accommodate young people confined on legal and welfare grounds. In these hybrid institutions, protection, treatment and punishment merge in ambiguous and contradictory practices that are experienced as unjust or even harmful by the young people and possibly breach the UN Convention of the Child. These practices are explored through a Foucauldian theorization highlighting the disciplinary practices unique to the confinement of minors. The article contributes to wider debates on the treatment–punishment nexus, Nordic exceptionalism and criminal justice for youth in an era of neoliberal penal-welfarism.
‘What the f**k Is Maturity'’: Young Adulthood, Subjective Maturity and Desistance From Crime
This article contributes to the ‘dissection’ of maturation by advancing previously overlooked, subjective aspects of the concept. The article draws upon life story research with 20 young adults in Belfast, Northern Ireland. An analysis of their accounts and narratives highlights the importance of maturity as an adaptive narrative coping mechanism for young adults who are structurally disbarred from achieving normative expressions of adult status. The analysis further explores the relationship between subjective maturity and desistance from crime, indicating the potential risks that a selective criminal justice policy focus on an absence of maturity among 18–25-year-olds may have on young adults coming into contact with the criminal justice system.
Criminological Policy Mobilities and Sex Work: Understanding the Movement of the ‘Swedish Model’ to Northern Ireland
Ideas, policies and models related to criminal justice often travel between places. How, then, should we make sense of this movement' We make the case for drawing on the policy mobilities literature, which originates in human geography. It is only recently that criminological studies have drawn on small parts of this literature. This article argues for a more expansive engagement with the policy mobilities literature, so that criminal justice researchers focus on concepts such as mobilities, mutation, assemblages, learning, educating and showcasing when studying the movement of criminal justice ideas, policies and models. To illustrate our argument, we will draw on a case study of the adaptation of the ‘Swedish model’ of governing sex work by policymakers in Northern Ireland.
Other People’s Dirty Money: Professional Intermediaries, Market Dynamics and the Finances of White-collar, Corporate and Organized Crimes
This article analyses the market dynamics of the misuse of ‘corporate vehicles’ in the management of finances generated from, and for, organized, white-collar and corporate crimes. The term ‘corporate vehicles’ is a policy construct used to refer to legitimate, legal structures, like trusts and companies, that facilitate a range of commercial activities. Such vehicles also provide opportunities for those involved in serious crimes for gain to control, convert and conceal their illicit finances, usually with the assistance of professional intermediaries, such as lawyers or financial advisors. This article empirically investigates key market features (actors/providers, commodities/products, services) and conditions (supply, demand, regulation, competition), with particular focus on professional intermediaries and how they facilitate the control of other people’s dirty money.
Symbolic Survival and Harm: Serious Fraud and Consumer Capitalism’s Perversion of the Causa Sui Project
Based on empirical research carried out with those convicted of serious fraud, the current article explores the motivations behind engagement in acquisitive criminality. Drawing on the work of Ernest Becker, the article seeks to transcend superficial explanations of fraud which draw on notions of greed and individual pathology, locating causation instead at the level of consumer capitalism’s perversion of the contemporary causa sui project through its stimulation of deep human existential anxieties. It will be suggested that the acts of economic predation perpetrated by the men in the study represent attempts to escape anxiety through the avoidance of symbolic annihilation and that they are illustrative of the way in which the contemporary capitalism generates harm.
The Gang’s All Queer: The Lives of Gay Gang MembersSurviving Gangs, Violence and Racism in Cape Town: Ghetto ChameleonsMano Dura: The Politics of Gang Control in El Salvador
The Gang’s All Queer: The Lives of Gay Gang Members. By
V. R. Panfil ( NYU Press, 2017, 312 pp. Paperback £21.99)
Corrigendum: An Unpaid Debt to Society: How ‘Punishment Debt’ Affects Reintegration and Desistance from Crime in Norway
The author regrets that in the online first version of this paper, an extra 0 appeared in the conversion of a sum in Norwegian Kroner to pounds sterling, meaning it was displayed as £930,000 when it should have read £93,000. This has now been corrected.
Corrigendum to: Have The England and Wales Guidelines Affected Sentencing Severity' An Empirical Analysis using a Scale of Severity and Time-Series Analyses
Br J Criminol doi:
10.1093/bjc/azz005
Japanese Atmospheres of Criminal Justice
What is a criminal justice atmosphere' Defined as that connecting individuals within and to the spaces they occupy or move through, the study of criminal justice atmospheres can add to thinking within criminology about space, affect and the aesthetic. Examination of criminal justice atmospheres teaches much about how institutions operate as environments choreographing a range of spatial, affective and aesthetic attachments for citizens. Through ethnographic research in Japan, the article considers the atmospheres of three settings: the koban, or ‘police box’, a museum dedicated to the leisure consumption of policing and a metropolitan prison. Reflexive engagement with aspects of Japanese criminal justice can reveal points of congruence through which taken-for-granted understandings of Western criminal justice processes may be questioned, critiqued and enriched. Reading their atmospheres enables our understanding both of their intended modes of operation and the possibilities for their interruption.
Civilizing Imprisonment: The Limits of Scottish Penal Exceptionalism
Focusing on imprisonment in Scotland during the 1980s–1990s, and drawing on extensive archival research, documentary analysis and interviews with seven retired civil servants and prison governors, this article is the first to provide an historical and analytical account of Scottish penal exceptionalism. It is argued that although not being punitive in its penal transformation, Scotland cannot rightly be defined as a historically moderate and humane exception when it comes to its prison system. Instead it is shown how the Scottish power to imprison was modernized and made more civilized, allowing prisons inevitable pains to be denied and submerged.
A De-Civilizing Reversal or System Normal' Rising Lethal Violence in Post-Recession Austerity United Kingdom
This article offers incipient theoretical analysis and reflections on the recent rises in lethal violence recorded in the United Kingdom. The rises have attracted considerable media attention, with the more informed discussions drawing plausible causal associations between rising lethal violence and the policy context of austerity. Criminology, however, has been relatively silent so far on the recent rises and this potential association. In response, this article attempts to stimulate debate by critically considering the utility of one of the most widely cited theoretical frameworks in the study of historical patterns of violence in the western nations: the ‘civilizing process’. The article then moves on to consider the applicability of insights from the incipient ultra-realist criminological perspective. The article suggests that the ultra-realist concept of the ‘pseudo-pacification process’ provides a useful means of furthering our understanding of these rises in the current socioeconomic context of post-crash capitalism.
The Penal Voluntary Sector: A Hybrid Sociology
The penal voluntary sector (PVS) is an important, complex, under-theorized area. Its non-profit, non-statutory organizations are highly significant in the operation of punishment around the world, yet ill understood. Burgeoning scholarship has begun to examine specific parts of the sector, particularly individualized service delivery. We offer a five-paradigm framework that more fully conceptualizes the PVS, including different types of service delivery and important campaigning work. Our hybrid framework applies and extends influential four-paradigm model of social theory given by Burrell and Morgan (Burrell, G. and Morgan, G. (1979), Sociological Paradigms and Organisational Analysis: Elements of the Sociology of Corporate Life. Routledge), which maps the theoretical diversity underpinning varying organizational activities. Our framework (1) provides ideal types, which illustrate the range, fluidity and hybridity of PVS programmes and practices and (2) highlights the (potential) roles of brokers in (re)directing activity.
Policing Migration and Racial Technologies
The merger between familiar modes of policing with the impetus for migration control is reorganizing the racial politics of policing in unexpected ways. In the aim to decipher who is a citizen, who is a foreign national offender and who is eligible for deportation on the grounds of criminality, the role of criminal records agencies has expanded further into the work of policing, as have the collaborative working partnerships between immigration and the police. In this article, I discuss the findings from research, which examines the policing of migration in the United Kingdom, and specifically Operation Nexus, which brings together ordinary police work and migration control. I focus on how technologies of border control are imbricated with everyday police practices that are often influenced by race, thereby deepening the reach of racial technologies and their capacity to monitor and exclude racial others.
Points of View: Arrestees’ Perspectives on Police Body-Worn Cameras and their Perceived Impact on Police–Citizen Interactions
Entirely absent from debates about the desirability and potential impacts of police body-worn cameras (BWCs) are the views of a significant group on the other side of the lens—individuals who have recently experienced arrest by a police officer. In a bid to redress this significant gap, this article reports findings from the first study to examine arrestee views and experiences of police BWCs. Data from interviews with 907 police detainees reveal that they are largely in favour of officers wearing cameras, believing that they can provide greater accountability and improve the behaviour of both law enforcement officers and members of the public. Importantly, however, this support is contingent on a number of operational and procedural policies regulating the use of BWCs.
Have the England and Wales Guidelines Affected Sentencing Severity' An Empirical Analysis Using a Scale of Severity and Time-Series Analyses
Sentence severity has increased in England and Wales in recent years. The causes of the increase remain unclear. One possible explanation relates to the introduction of sentencing guidelines, which seem to coincide in time with the increase in sentence severity. To date, investigations of this hypothesis have been limited to simple exploratory analyses or to specific offences. We use a new scale of sentence severity—developed using Thurstone scaling and the participation of 21 magistrates—and time-series modelling to explore whether a causal effect can be attributed to seven different guidelines. We corroborate the existence of an increase in sentence severity; however, we do not find conclusive evidence pointing at the guidelines having caused it.
Prisons, Punishment, and the Family: Towards a New Sociology of Punishment' By Rachel Condry and Peter Scharff Smith (eds) (Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2018, 336 pp. $85, hardcover. ISBN: 9780198810087)
Prisons, Punishment, and the Family: Towards a New Sociology of Punishment' By Rachel Condry and Peter Scharff Smith (eds) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, 336 pp. $85, hardcover. ISBN: 9780198810087).
A History of Private Policing in the United States. By Wilbur R. Miller (Bloomsbury Academic, 2019, 248pp., hardcover £85, ISBN978-1-4725-3336-4)
A History of Private Policing in the United States. By Wilbur R. Miller (Bloomsbury Academic, 2019, 248 pp., hardcover £85, ISBN 978-1-4725-3336-4)
Corrigendum to: Police Stop and Search within British Muslim Communities: Evidence from the Crime Survey 2006–11
This is a correction notice for article azy013 (DOI: https://doi.org/
10.1093/bjc/azy013
), published on 22 May 2018. In the section ‘Police Stop and Search Powers’, the term ‘stop and search’ was erroneously used in the following sentence: ‘Between 2006 and 2011, the recording of police stop and search by officers was compulsory’. The intended term was in fact ‘stop and account’ and the author did not mean to imply that police recording was not compulsory before 2006. This sentence has been corrected online.
Corrigendum to: Conservation Criminology: Modelling Offender Target Selection for Illegal Fishing in Marine Protected Areas
Br J Criminol doi:
10.1093/bjc/azz020
Technology-facilitated Domestic and Family Violence: Women’s Experiences
The use of technology, including smartphones, cameras, Internet-connected devices, computers and platforms such as Facebook, is now an essential part of everyday life. Such technology is used to maintain social networks and carry out daily tasks. However, this technology can also be employed to facilitate domestic and family violence. Drawing on interviews undertaken with 55 domestic and family violence survivors in Brisbane, Australia, this article outlines survivors’ experiences of technology-facilitated domestic and family violence. The frequency and nature of abusive behaviours described by the women suggest this is a key form of abuse deserving more significant attention.
Children as ‘Risk’ – Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Children and Young People. By A.-M. McAlinden (Cambridge University Press, 2018, 372 pp. £ 85.00)
Children as ‘Risk’ – Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Children and Young People. By A.-M. McAlinden (Cambridge University Press, 2018, 372 pp. £ 85.00).
Homeward: Life in the Year After Prison. By Bruce Western (New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 2018, 216pp. $29.95/£22.83, ISBN: 0871549557)
Homeward: Life in the Year After Prison. By BruceWestern(New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 2018, 216pp. $29.95/£22.83, ISBN: 0871549557).
The Radzinowicz Memorial Prize
The Radzinowicz Memorial Prize is awarded by The British Journal of Criminology for the article published each year which, in the opinion of the editors, most contributes to the knowledge of criminal justice and criminal justice issues.
The Death Penalty, Volume II. By Jacques Derrida (The University of Chicago Press, 2017, 265 pp., $45 USD) The Will to Punish. By Didier Fassin (Oxford University Press, 2018, 194 pp., £19.99 HB)
The Death Penalty, Volume II. By DerridaJacques(The University of Chicago Press, 2017, 265 pp., $45 USD)
Alternatives to custody: Evidence from police force areas in England and Wales
England and Wales have some of the highest incarceration rates in the developed world. Recent policy reforms have focused on developing alternatives to custody that offer credible protection for the public, and justice for victims of crime. This article uses unique detailed panel-level data acquired from the Ministry of Justice for all Police Force Areas from 2002 to 2013 in England and Wales to analyse the effects of custodial and non-custodial sentences on recorded crime. Our results suggest that non-custodial sentences can be an effective alternative to custody at reducing property crime but their effect is less consistent for violent crime. This suggests that non-custodial sentences are credible, cost-effective substitutes to incarceration.
A Typology of Street Robbery and Gang Organization: Insights from Qualitative Research in Scotland
Utilizing interviews with 42 current and ex-street offenders, this study explores the relationship between street gang organization and robbery. Robbery type is affected by level of organization exhibited by the gang. For recreational and territorial young street gangs, robbery is opportunistic, occurring in a diffuse manner, and conducted individually, even when others are present as ‘backup’. For criminal gangs, robbery is often planned in advance with proceeds of crime divided more evenly amongst group members. Serious Organized Crime gangs are typically more specialized; thus, robbery may often be the gang’s main ‘occupation’. For organized crime groups, robbery most often occurs in the illegitimate market, but can be aimed at legitimate and highly profitable institutions. We make sense of these findings with reference to street capital theory and present implications for future research and practice.
Forensic Science and Expert Testimony in Wrongful Convictions: A study of decision-making at the Criminal Cases Review Commission
The Criminal Cases Review Commission reviews possible wrongful convictions in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, referring back to the Court of Appeal cases where there is a ‘real possibility’ that the conviction is unsafe. This article presents findings from a four-year empirical study of decision-making within the Commission. It explores how Commission staff exercise their discretionary powers in identifying and investigating possible wrongful convictions from approximately 1,400 applications a year, referring just a few back to the Court. It focuses on a sample of cases that turned on forensic evidence and expert testimony, showing that while there is some variation in individual caseworkers’ approaches to investigation, decision-making is shaped by the law and internal policies such that reasonably consistent decision frames emerge.
‘I Am Talking About It Because I Want to Stop It’: Child Sexual Abuse and Sexual Violence Against Women in British South Asian Communities
This article explores the role of socio-cultural factors in violence against women and girls, focusing on child sexual abuse (CSA) and sexual violence (SV) in British South Asian communities. Using examples from 13 in-depth interviews with survivors, the researchers examine (1) how abusers gain access to their victims, (2) family and community responses and (3) the role of cultural factors in concealing CSA/SV. The interviews demonstrate that British South Asian survivors are extremely reluctant to disclose SV/CSA due to factors that other groups of victims usually do not face, including a general taboo about discussing sex and strong cultural norms around notions of shame. These findings are contextualized in relation to a larger study that also involved community focus groups and interviews with professionals in relevant fields. Moving forward, new culturally specific support pathways for British South Asian victims must be developed that take account of the role that victims and their communities must play if CSA and SV are to be effectively combatted.
‘Why Should I Trust You With My Money'’: Credible Commitments in the Informal Economy in China
This article explores theoretical and empirical features of informal value transfer systems, the illegal transfer of money between jurisdictions. It identifies the trust relationships between the actors involved and discusses four mechanisms used to signal trustworthiness. It then applies these theoretical considerations to China, where transferring money abroad cannot exceed a limited amount, and the process is costly. While most authors stress the importance of trust, we find that informal mechanisms of credible commitments, such as reputation, repeated interaction, hostage taking and sharing compromising information, are used. These strategies underpin an industry that transfers billions of dollars out of China every year. We found no evidence of use of violence or Mafia involvement. The article is based on field research, interviews with bankers and customers, and a review of official documents and news reports in Chinese and English.
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    Die DSGVO stärkt die Datenschutzrechte europaweit für uns alle. Bei vub haben wir aus diesem Anlass unsere Datenschutzerklärung grundlegend verändert:

    • Wir stellen noch übersichtlicher dar, wie und wofür wir personenbezogene Daten verarbeiten (wenn überhaupt, denn das Verwerten Ihrer persönlichen Daten ist überhaupt nicht unser Geschäft!).
    • Wir informieren in unserer neuen Datenschutzerklärung über die Kundenrechte.
    • Wir haben die Datenschutzerklärung übersichtlicher gestaltet.
    • Ab dem 25. Mai 2018 können Sie in Ihrem Kundenkonto unter „meine Einstellungen“ den gewünschten Datenschutz selbst einstellen.

    Bei Fragen wenden Sie sich bitte jederzeit an unseren vub-Kundenservice und Ihre bekannten Ansprechpartner unter premiumservice@vub.de.

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