## The British Journal of Criminology - BJC

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Kriminologie
Oxford University Press Journals Department
0007-0955
jährlich 6 mal
Englisch
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## The British Journal of Criminology - BJC

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The British Journal of Criminology is one of the most influential journals in its field in the English speaking language. It is widely consulted by academics and researchers in criminology probation and social work and by professionals concerned with law criminal justice and penology.
Meine Notizen
Editorial
This volume marks the 60th anniversary of the British Journal of Criminology and, over this long history, it has established itself as a leading institution in British and international criminology. Although it is unusual for the editor of the journal to provide an editorial for a new issue, this one is the first of my term as Editor in Chief. Like every editor before me, no doubt, I am keenly aware of the responsibility tied to the role and certainly realize I have big shoes to fill. I am privileged to be taking up the reins following the outstanding example set by Sandra Walklate.
‘All Knowledge Begins with the Senses’1: Towards a Sensory Criminology
AbstractVisual criminology has established itself as a site of criminological innovation. Its ascendance, though, highlights ways in which the ‘ocularcentrism’ of the social sciences is reproduced in criminology. We respond, arguing for attention to the totality of sensorial modalities. Outlining the possible contours of a criminology concerned with smell, taste, sound and touch—along with the visual—the paper describes moments in which the sensory intersects with various phenomena of crime, harm, justice and power. Noting the primacy of the sensorial in understanding environmental harm, we describe an explicitly sensory green criminology while also suggesting the ways that heightened criminological attention to the non-visual senses might uncover new sites and modes of knowledge and a more richly affective criminology.
Falsification by Atrophy: The Kuhnian Process of Rejecting Theory in US Criminology
AbstractThomas Kuhn posits that the structure of science promotes revolutionary discovery. The decision of a scientific community to discard the status quo in favour of a revolutionary paradigm is influenced by sociological forces. Karl Popper disagreed, arguing that falsification is required. An examination of a random sample of 501 articles published in 14 peer-reviewed American outlets in criminology and criminal justice from 1993 to 2008 is coupled with oral histories from 17 leading criminologists in determining which approach best characterizes criminology. Twelve per cent of papers falsify theory. When not explicitly falsified, atrophy occurs when theory is overused (exhaustion), ignored (indolence) and subjected to a sustained critique (assault). The intention of the effort is to document and describe falsification and then invite further discourse.
Response to Dooley and Goodison: Falsification By Atrophy: The Kuhnian Process of Rejecting Theory in American Criminology
We would like to start our response by thanking Brendan Dooley and Sean Goodison for producing such a thought-provoking article. We were the (originally anonymous, now self-outed) peer reviewers for this journal. The stimulus and, we should admit, provocation that we received from Dooley and Goodison’s article encouraged us both into producing two of the longest peer reviews either of us can recall writing. So when Sandra Walklate offered us the opportunity to make those reviews the basis for a response to the article in the British Journal of Criminology we gladly took up the challenge.
Making Crime a Sustainable Development Issue: From ‘Drugs and Thugs’ to ‘Peaceful and Inclusive Societies’
AbstractDevelopment has long featured on the United Nations (UN) crime policy agenda; however, crime was only officially recognized by the international community as a global development priority following the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals in 2015. Adopting a sociological institutionalist perspective, this article sets out to account for how this recognition was achieved. We draw on interviews with senior UN crime policy insiders and documentary sources to analyse the efforts of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to amplify awareness of the crime-development link following the omission of this issue from the Millenium Development Goals and amidst significant institutional and material pressures to strengthen its ties to the wider UN system. The article accounts for the political construction of the crime-development nexus and the important role that UNODC has historically played in facilitating global governance in this emergent and increasingly expansive sphere of policy and practice.
A Life-Course Analysis of Engagement in Violent Extremist Groups
AbstractIn this exploratory study, individuals’ processes of engagement in violent extremist groups are analysed by drawing from criminological life-course theory and narrative-based understandings of crime. Based on interviews with individuals who have participated in violent extremism, it is suggested that the process of engagement consists of three steps: (1) a weakening of informal social controls, followed by (2) an interaction with individuals in proximity to the group and (3) a stage of meaning-making in relation to the group and one’s identity, resulting in an individual’s willingness and capacity to engaging in the group’s activities, including violence. In future theorizing about processes of engagement in violent extremism, the meanings of age, and the life-course stages of late adolescence and emerging adulthood in particular, should be given analytic attention.
Hate in the Machine: Anti-Black and Anti-Muslim Social Media Posts as Predictors of Offline Racially and Religiously Aggravated Crime
AbstractNational governments now recognize online hate speech as a pernicious social problem. In the wake of political votes and terror attacks, hate incidents online and offline are known to peak in tandem. This article examines whether an association exists between both forms of hate, independent of ‘trigger’ events. Using Computational Criminology that draws on data science methods, we link police crime, census and Twitter data to establish a temporal and spatial association between online hate speech that targets race and religion, and offline racially and religiously aggravated crimes in London over an eight-month period. The findings renew our understanding of hate crime as a process, rather than as a discrete event, for the digital age.
The Role of Radical Economic Restructuring in Truancy from School and Engagement in Crime
AbstractOf late, criminologists have become acutely aware of the relationship between school outcomes and engagement in crime as an adult. This phenomenon—which has come to be known as the ‘school-to-prison-pipeline’—has been studied in North America and the United Kingdom, and requires longitudinal data sets. Typically, these studies approach the phenomenon from an individualist perspective and examine truancy in terms of the truants’ attitudes, academic achievement or their home life. What remains unclear, however, is a consideration of (1) how macro-level social and economic processes may influence the incidence of truancy, and (2) how structural processes fluctuate over time, and in so doing produce variations in truancy rates or the causal processes associated with truancy. Using longitudinal data from two birth cohort studies, we empirically address these blind spots and test the role of social-structural processes in truancy, and how these may change over time.
Constructing Suspicion Through Forensic DNA Databases in the EU. The Views of the Prüm Professionals
AbstractThis article explores the fluid and flexible forms of constructing suspicion, which take shape in transnational governance of crime through forensic DNA databases. The empirical examples are the views of professionals engaged with the so-called Prüm system. This technological identification system was developed to enable DNA data exchange across EU Member States in the context of police and judicial cooperation to control cross-border crime and terrorism. We argue that suspicion is constructed through forms of deterritorializing and reterritorializing assumptions about criminality linked to the movements of suspect communities across the European Union. Transnational crime management is configured through narratives of global expansion of criminal mobility, technical neutrality of DNA identification and the reliance on criminal categorizations of particular national populations.
Putting Coercive Control into Practice: Problems and Possibilities
AbstractThere is growing international interest in translating Stark’s concept of coercive control into criminal justice policy and practice. In December 2015 an offence of coercive control was introduced in England and Wales. This paper offers an empirical investigation of the problems and possibilities associated with the translation of this offence into practice in one police force area in England. The findings offer some scope for optimism in response to patterns of abuse, but they also support the view that the current gender-neutral version of the legislation requires revision; there is a need for greater resourcing and training to improve understandings of the nature and impact of coercive control at all points of contact within the criminal justice process and finally, it remains the case that effective responses to domestic abuse need to be genuinely holistic.
The Whole Story: The Dilemma of the Domestic Violence Protection Order Narrative
AbstractThe complaint narrative, in which victims describe their experiences of abuse as part of the domestic violence protection order application process, has been questioned on the basis that quality and outcome might vary depending on who completes the form. Using a mixed-methods narrative analysis approach, we advance this inquiry by examining whether distinct ‘types’ of narratives can be identified across a sample of protection order application narratives from the state of Queensland in Australia. We find three distinct narrative types that are differently associated with who makes the application and the protection order outcome. The results underscore the unevenness in the protection order process and equitable access to justice more broadly.
The Diffusion of Detriment: Tracking Displacement Using a City-Wide Mixed Methods Approach
AbstractCrime reduction strategies are often faced with the criticism of crime displacement. Conversely, criminologists find that reductions in crime in one area have a ‘diffusion of benefits’ to surrounding areas. However, these findings are limited due to a lack of extensive longitudinal data and qualitative data that provide context. We examine a natural experiment in displacement: the removal of a convergence setting in which calls for service immediately declined. However, other areas emerged as problematic and, in some places, crime increased dramatically. Using a qualitatively informed trajectory analysis, we examine whether the removal of a convergence setting results in displacement across the entire city. We discuss the implications for opportunity theories and prevention strategies.
The Problem with Crime Problem-Solving: Towards a Second Generation Pop'
AbstractIn his 2018 Stockholm prize winner lecture, Goldstein highlighted the need for problem-oriented policing (POP) to be not only effective but also fair. Contributing to the development of POP, this study examines how a wider perspective on problem-solving generally, and scoping in particular, can be adopted to address some of the growing challenges in 21st century policing. We demonstrate that the concept of ‘problem’ was too narrowly defined and that, as a result, many problem-solving models found in criminology are ill-structured to minimize the negative side-effects of interventions and deliver broader benefits. Problem-solving concepts and models are compared across disciplines and recommendations are made to improve POP, drawing on examples in architecture, conservation science, industrial ecology and ethics.
The Private Policing of Insurance Claims: Power, Profit and Private Justice
Br J Criminol doi:
10.1093/bjc/azx026
Corrigendum to: Hate in the Machine: Anti-Black and Anti-Muslim Social Media Posts as Predictors of Offline Racially and Religiously Aggravated Crime
Brit J Criminol doi:
10.1093/bjc/azz049
Corrigendum to: The Dynamics of Domestic Abuse and Drug and Alcohol Dependency
This manuscript has been amended to correct errors in Table 1 and several minor grammatical mistakes. The author apologies for any confusion caused.
Erratum to: The Role of Radical Economic Restructuring in Truancy from School and Engagement in Crime
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azz040
Crimes of the Senses: Yarn Bombing and Aesthetic Criminology
Yarn bombing involves the display of knitted or crocheted items in public space, often without permission. This article draws on interviews with yarn bombers in the North West of England and considers who the yarn bombers are, their motivations and experiences and their views on the legal status of yarn bombing. Although the visual is important for yarn bombing—and it is therefore of interest to visual criminology—this article also looks further to consider other sensory experience. In this way, it contributes to an emerging aesthetic criminology concerned with broader sensory, affective and emotive experience. Drawing on Thrift’s work on urban affect or mood, as well as Anderson and Young on affective atmospheres, yarn bombing is regarded as a crime of the senses affecting both the look and the feel of the city. The scope for further development of an aesthetic criminology is suggested, including specific methodologies that embrace the full range of sensory experiences associated with crime, disorder or social harm.
Mapping Criminological Engagements Within Radicalization Studies
When Peaceful People Fight: Beyond neutralization and subcultural theory
Fights are widespread in society, but for most people it happens once or twice and is not part of a consistent pattern or lifestyle. Using a narrative criminological framework, we study the stories of violence among people who otherwise seldom engage in violent behaviour. The young Norwegians we interviewed, emphasized that their fights emerged as a response to insults, was fuelled by drinking and could be exciting. Participants had negative evaluations of their fights, took the blame for them, talked down their importance and self-critically used humour to ridicule their involvement. Our study demonstrates the shortcomings of subcultural and neutralization theories when it comes to understanding violent behaviour among those who rarely engage in it.
Making Sense of ‘Joint Enterprise’ for Murder: Legal Legitimacy or Instrumental Acquiescence'
The legal doctrine of ‘joint enterprise’ has been heavily criticized for lacking legitimacy, primarily linked to distributive (in)justice. This paper draws on the narratives of ‘joint enterprise prisoners’ serving long life sentences for murder to address such concerns and extend the discussion to questions of ‘legal legitimacy’. Prisoners who were early in their sentences explicitly rejected the legal legitimacy of joint enterprise, while those at a later stage reported ‘accepting’ their conviction and demonstrated ‘consent’ by engaging with their sentence. We argue that rather than representing normative acceptance of the legal legitimacy of joint enterprise over time, this acceptance is a form of instrumental acquiescence associated with ‘dull compulsion’ ‘coping acceptance’ and personal meaning making.
Does Gender Affect the Number and Type of Charges Laid in Intimate Partner Violence Cases'
Pro-charging policies were implemented in Canada in the 1980s to denounce intimate partner violence (IPV). Since pro-charging policies were implemented, the proportion of men charged remains higher than women charged; however, the proportion of women charged increased dramatically. Little is known about the gendered differences in charging decisions in IPV cases. Utilizing a sample of 1,708 accused charged in IPV cases, logistic regression was employed to examine the influence of accused gender on the number of charges laid and the type of primary offence accused were charged with. The findings reveal there are differences between male- and female-perpetrated violence or responses to their violence, requiring more investigation.
Immigrant Perceptions of the Police: The Role of Country of Origin and Length of Settlement
Relationships between police and minority groups have been shown to be strained with members of these groups often viewing police in a more negative light. Distinguishing between minority group and immigrant populations, more recent work has shown that foreign-born individuals are more likely to view the police in a more favourable light than native-born populations. Adding to this literature, we examine group-specific factors that shape foreign-born individuals’ views of the police. We find that country of origin and length of settlement are important factors in better understanding immigrants’ perceptions of the police. The study concludes with a discussion of trust in police and recommendations for future research.
Cooperation with the Police Against Corruption: Exploring the Roles of Legitimacy, Deterrence and Collective Action Theories
In explaining public willingness to cooperate with the police, researchers have disproportionally emphasized legitimacy. Deterrence is presumed to be irrelevant; where it is considered, the approach appears perfunctory. Using survey data from 530 young adults in Ghana, this study examines the relative importance of deterrence and legitimacy perceptions in shaping willingness to report corruption transactions to the police. The results showed that perceptions of legitimacy did not affect the young adults’ willingness to report corruption to the police. The most important and consistent predictors of willingness to report corruption to the police were deterrence-based perceptions, specifically, of the certainty of being apprehended for engaging in corrupt transactions, of the severity of sanctions against such transactions and of the perceived cooperative intentions of other citizens. Deterrence proved particularly salient among those who claimed ignorance of where to report corrupt transactions.
Going Spatial: Applying Egohoods to Fear of Crime Research
A central theme in criminology is how fear of crime is influenced by the residential context. Most researchers rely on administrative neighbourhoods to define context. These administrative units do not necessarily align with how inhabitants experience their local surroundings. The present study combines administrative neighbourhoods with a more innovative way to measure context. Using geocoded survey data (N = 14.620) in combination with detailed geographic information system data, we construct egohoods with different radii (ranging from 50 to 750 m). We find that crime, ethnic diversity, economic status, disorder and facilities all have an effect on feelings of unsafety. The contextual effects differ in size and are not detected in all spatial contexts, indicating that it matters how and to which scale data are aggregated.
Understanding the Differential Effects of Land Uses on Crime: An Examination Across Philadelphia Neighbourhoods
Although criminology presumes that the physical structural qualities of neighbourhoods have important consequences for crime, there is a dearth of research to test the effects of different land uses on crime rates. Using data on a sample of Philadelphia census blocks, I compute the percentage of the block area classified into seven land use categories, and I use Poisson models to test the localized and broader spatial impact of each of these land uses on crime, controlling for key sociodemographic characteristics. The results show that to effectively understand the interplay between physical structure and crime rates, researchers should disaggregate nonresidential land uses, account for the surrounding environment in which neighbourhoods are situated and analyse a specific form of moderation.
Conservation Criminology: Modelling Offender Target Selection for Illegal Fishing in Marine Protected Areas
The emergence of conservation criminology over the past decade provides a unique insight into patterns of wildlife crime. Wildlife crime has a dramatic impact on many vulnerable species and represents a significant challenge to the management of protected areas around the world. This paper contributes to the field of conservation criminology by examining the travel patterns of fishing poachers in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park in Australia. The results demonstrate that distance is a key feature of offender target selection, reflecting the established environmental criminology concept of distance decay. The analysis also reveals a significant relationship between individual no-take zones and regional population areas. The applicability of a nodal-oriented approach to wildlife crime prevention is discussed.
An Unpaid Debt to Society: How ‘Punishment Debt’ Affects Reintegration and Desistance from Crime in Norway
The Scandinavian exceptionalism literature has highlighted the relatively progressive and rehabilitative nature of imprisonment in Norway, with the Norwegian Correctional Services taking the view that those convicted of crimes have paid their debt to society at the end of their sentence. However, other parts of the Norwegian state take a more stringent view, imposing and enforcing significant and persistent debts on offenders. This article, based on official documents and interviews with Norwegian desisters and probation caseworkers, analyses how living with debt poses a major challenge for reintegration and desistance. Referred to informally as ‘punishment debt’, this pervasive but less visible aspect of Norwegian penality demonstrates the need to broaden the penal exceptionalism research agenda beyond the confines of the prison.
(De-)Criminalizing Welfare' The Rise and Fall of Social Security Fraud Prosecutions in Australia
The social security fraud prosecution rate has fallen by approximately 74.9 per cent in Australia since 2010. This is remarkable considering the national dialogue continues to propound a ‘zero tolerance’ approach to fraud in the welfare system. Drawing on interviews with compliance staff from the Australian Department of Human Services, documentary research and a Foucauldian governmentality analytic, this article charts and interrogates the declining welfare fraud prosecution rate in the context of neoliberal welfare reform. It argues that this decline is at least partially the result of the reformulation of the objects of prosecution strategies by staff responsible for their enactment. This finding highlights the importance of localized accounts of welfare administration to supplement and complicate macro analyses of the ‘criminalization of welfare’ in Western industrialized nations.
Youth, Community and the Struggle for Social Justice. (Routledge, 2018, 212 pp. £78.70 hb/£39.20 pb). ISBN: 978-1-315-45621-8
Youth, Community and the Struggle for Social Justice. By GoddardTim and MyersRandy. (Routledge, 2018, 212 pp. £78.70 hb/£39.20 pb). ISBN: 978-1-315-45621-8
Reasons to Doubt: Wrongful Convictions and The Criminal Cases Review Commission
Reasons to Doubt: Wrongful Convictions and the Criminal Cases Review Commission. By HoyleCarolyn and SatoMai ( Oxford University Press, 2019, 414pp. $99 USD) Dashing Hopes' the Predictive Accuracy of Domestic Abuse Risk Assessment by Police The Domestic Abuse, Stalking and Honour Based Violence (DASH) form is a standardized risk assessment implemented across most UK police forces. It is intended to facilitate an officer’s structured professional judgment about the risk a victim faces of serious harm at the hand of their abuser. Until now, it has been an open question whether this tool works in practice. Here, we present the largest scale European study, making the case that the risk assessment tool is underperforming. Each element of the DASH questionnaire is, at best, weakly predictive of revictimization. Officer risk predictions based on DASH are little better than random and a logistic regression model that predicts the same outcome using DASH only provides modest improvement in performance. The Dynamics of Domestic Abuse and Drug and Alcohol Dependency This article elucidates the dynamics that occur in relationships where there have been both substance use and domestic abuse. It draws interpretively on in-depth qualitative interviews with male perpetrators and their current and former partners. These interviews were undertaken for the National Institute for Health Research-funded ADVANCE programme. The article’s analysis highlights the diverse ways in which domestic abuse by substance-using male partners is compounded for women who have never been substance dependent, women who have formerly been substance dependent and women who are currently substance dependent. The criminological implications of the competing models of change deployed in drug treatment and domestic violence intervention are discussed alongside the policy and practice challenges entailed in reconciling them within intervention contexts where specialist service provision has been scaled back and victims navigate pressures to stay with perpetrators while they undergo treatment alongside the threat of sanction should they seek protection from the police and courts. ‘The Perfect Murder’: An Exploratory Study of Staged Murder Scenes and Concealed Femicide Presenting cases of criminologically unidentifiable circumstances, authors point to concealment susceptibility of some femicide cases, overlooked by both the criminal system and by scholars, rendering them ‘concealed femicides’. The paper presents descriptive and criminological analyses of Israeli cases whereby the woman’s murder was followed by scene staging. It extrapolates the common characteristics of femicide victims and perpetrators, offers a typology of homicide scene staging behaviour that facilitates domesticity-related femicide concealment and, eventually, introduces tools to enhance exposure of femicide. Lessons of an Honour Code: A Consideration of Conflict-related Processes and Interpersonal Violence Criminological research has long suggested that attitudes concerned with honour and aggression, such as the ‘street code’, are related to violent offending and victimization. Comparatively, little information is known, however, about the mechanisms through which these attitudes increase violence. Drawing from interactionist perspectives of aggression and subcultural theories, we examine the mediating role of two conflict-related tendencies: disputatiousness and remedial actions. We also examine the extent to which remedial actions moderate the association between disputatiousness and violence. Predictions are tested using longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States. Results show that conflict-related tendencies mediate the pathways linking the street code to violent offending and victimization. In addition, remedial actions temper the association between disputatiousness and violence involvement. State Payments to Victims of Violent Crime: Discretion and Bias in Awards for Sexual Offences State monetary schemes for victims of violent crime began in the 1960s and operate in 35 countries today, yet knowledge is lacking on who is applying, how decisions are reached, variation in awards and why amounts may differ. Analysing 291 sexual offence cases in Queensland, we ask whether awards differ by victim sex/gender and by societal constructs of ideal, real rape, and credible victims. We found that male child victims received higher awards than female child victims for more serious sexual offences and that awards to females aged 12 and older were affected by elements associated with real rape and credible victims. We call upon researchers and governments to pursue and expand this new area of research. Victims Who Have Done Nothing or Victims Who Have Done Nothing Wrong: Contesting Blame and ‘Innocent Victim’ Status in Transitioning Societies Building on recent victimological interventions in transitional justice, this article critically examines nuanced interpretations of what an ‘innocent victim’ is in transitioning societies without any agreed legal, political or moral base position on past political violence. It suggests that the term refers to two different types of victims: victims who have done nothing that fit traditional victimological understandings of the blameless, passive ‘ideal victim’ and victims who have done nothing wrong where innocence and blame are open to fundamental political and moral contest. It concludes that the irreconcilability, looseness and adaptability of competing frameworks for understanding the past pose a core victimological disagreement surrounding victims who have done nothing wrong that even a more critically self-reflective approach by victimizers fails to resolve. Prison Versus Western Australia: Which Worked Best, the Australian Penal Colony or the English Convict Prison System' Between 1850 and 1868, a natural experiment in punishment took place. Men convicted of similar crimes could serve their sentence of penal servitude either in Britain or in Australia. For historians and social scientists, this offers the prospect of addressing a key question posed over 200 years ago by the philosopher, penal theorist and reformer Jeremy Bentham when he authored a lengthy letter entitled ‘Panopticon versus New South Wales: Or, the Panopticon Penitentiary System, and the Penal Colonization System, Compared’. This article answers the underlying tenet of Bentham’s question, ‘Which was best prison or transportation'’ by applying two efficiency tests. The first tests whether UK convicts or Australian convicts had higher rates of reconviction, and the second explores the speed to reconviction. ‘So, Why Am I Here'’ Ambiguous Practices of Protection, Treatment and Punishment in Danish Secure Institutions for Youth This article explores how a nexus of punishment, treatment and protection creates unique mechanisms of control in secure institutions for young people. It is based on a study in Danish secure institutions, which accommodate young people confined on legal and welfare grounds. In these hybrid institutions, protection, treatment and punishment merge in ambiguous and contradictory practices that are experienced as unjust or even harmful by the young people and possibly breach the UN Convention of the Child. These practices are explored through a Foucauldian theorization highlighting the disciplinary practices unique to the confinement of minors. The article contributes to wider debates on the treatment–punishment nexus, Nordic exceptionalism and criminal justice for youth in an era of neoliberal penal-welfarism. ‘What the f**k Is Maturity'’: Young Adulthood, Subjective Maturity and Desistance From Crime This article contributes to the ‘dissection’ of maturation by advancing previously overlooked, subjective aspects of the concept. The article draws upon life story research with 20 young adults in Belfast, Northern Ireland. An analysis of their accounts and narratives highlights the importance of maturity as an adaptive narrative coping mechanism for young adults who are structurally disbarred from achieving normative expressions of adult status. The analysis further explores the relationship between subjective maturity and desistance from crime, indicating the potential risks that a selective criminal justice policy focus on an absence of maturity among 18–25-year-olds may have on young adults coming into contact with the criminal justice system. Symbolic Survival and Harm: Serious Fraud and Consumer Capitalism’s Perversion of the Causa Sui Project Based on empirical research carried out with those convicted of serious fraud, the current article explores the motivations behind engagement in acquisitive criminality. Drawing on the work of Ernest Becker, the article seeks to transcend superficial explanations of fraud which draw on notions of greed and individual pathology, locating causation instead at the level of consumer capitalism’s perversion of the contemporary causa sui project through its stimulation of deep human existential anxieties. It will be suggested that the acts of economic predation perpetrated by the men in the study represent attempts to escape anxiety through the avoidance of symbolic annihilation and that they are illustrative of the way in which the contemporary capitalism generates harm. The Gang’s All Queer: The Lives of Gay Gang MembersSurviving Gangs, Violence and Racism in Cape Town: Ghetto ChameleonsMano Dura: The Politics of Gang Control in El Salvador The Gang’s All Queer: The Lives of Gay Gang Members. By V. R. Panfil ( NYU Press, 2017, 312 pp. Paperback £21.99) Corrigendum: An Unpaid Debt to Society: How ‘Punishment Debt’ Affects Reintegration and Desistance from Crime in Norway The author regrets that in the online first version of this paper, an extra 0 appeared in the conversion of a sum in Norwegian Kroner to pounds sterling, meaning it was displayed as £930,000 when it should have read £93,000. This has now been corrected. Corrigendum to: Have The England and Wales Guidelines Affected Sentencing Severity' An Empirical Analysis using a Scale of Severity and Time-Series Analyses Br J Criminol doi: 10.1093/bjc/azz005 Points of View: Arrestees’ Perspectives on Police Body-Worn Cameras and their Perceived Impact on Police–Citizen Interactions Entirely absent from debates about the desirability and potential impacts of police body-worn cameras (BWCs) are the views of a significant group on the other side of the lens—individuals who have recently experienced arrest by a police officer. In a bid to redress this significant gap, this article reports findings from the first study to examine arrestee views and experiences of police BWCs. Data from interviews with 907 police detainees reveal that they are largely in favour of officers wearing cameras, believing that they can provide greater accountability and improve the behaviour of both law enforcement officers and members of the public. Importantly, however, this support is contingent on a number of operational and procedural policies regulating the use of BWCs. Have the England and Wales Guidelines Affected Sentencing Severity' An Empirical Analysis Using a Scale of Severity and Time-Series Analyses Sentence severity has increased in England and Wales in recent years. The causes of the increase remain unclear. One possible explanation relates to the introduction of sentencing guidelines, which seem to coincide in time with the increase in sentence severity. To date, investigations of this hypothesis have been limited to simple exploratory analyses or to specific offences. We use a new scale of sentence severity—developed using Thurstone scaling and the participation of 21 magistrates—and time-series modelling to explore whether a causal effect can be attributed to seven different guidelines. We corroborate the existence of an increase in sentence severity; however, we do not find conclusive evidence pointing at the guidelines having caused it. Prisons, Punishment, and the Family: Towards a New Sociology of Punishment' By Rachel Condry and Peter Scharff Smith (eds) (Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2018, 336 pp.$85, hardcover. ISBN: 9780198810087)
Prisons, Punishment, and the Family: Towards a New Sociology of Punishment' By Rachel Condry and Peter Scharff Smith (eds) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, 336 pp. \$85, hardcover. ISBN: 9780198810087).
A History of Private Policing in the United States. By Wilbur R. Miller (Bloomsbury Academic, 2019, 248pp., hardcover £85, ISBN978-1-4725-3336-4)
A History of Private Policing in the United States. By Wilbur R. Miller (Bloomsbury Academic, 2019, 248 pp., hardcover £85, ISBN 978-1-4725-3336-4)
Corrigendum to: Conservation Criminology: Modelling Offender Target Selection for Illegal Fishing in Marine Protected Areas
Br J Criminol doi:
10.1093/bjc/azz020
The Radzinowicz Memorial Prize is awarded by The British Journal of Criminology for the article published each year which, in the opinion of the editors, most contributes to the knowledge of criminal justice and criminal justice issues.
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