Advances in life course research - Adv Life Course Res


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Kriminologie
Elsevier - JOURNALS DEPARTMENT Saunders/Mosby/Harcourt Health
1040-2608
jährlich 4 mal
Englisch
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Advances in life course research - Adv Life Course Res

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Life course research with panel data: An analysis of the reproduction of social inequality
Panel data are increasingly used in life course research. However, such data would be under-analyzed if only classical methods of life course research (i.e., event-history analysis and sequence analysis) would be used for analyzing them. Methods developed for the analysis of panel data have been shown to be valuable to life course research as well. In this article we emphasize that growth curve modeling and fixed effects regression in particular can supplement the life course research toolbox.
In order to demonstrate this, we provide an illustrative panel data analysis using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel from the years 1984–2014 in combination with a classical sociological research question on the reproduction of social inequality. Reinterpreted within the life course framework, we ask: Is there a well-being differential over the life course between people from different social origins' If yes, what is the mediating role of unemployment'
Results show that higher social origin indeed relates to higher well-being, and that the well-being differential increases with age. Further, unemployment plays no significant role in mediating origin-specific effects of age on well-being.
Publisher’s Note
Family formation patterns of children who experienced parental imprisonment
While it is widely recognized that imprisonment affects the lives of prisoners, there is increasing evidence that the consequences also extend to prisoners’ children. Recently, several studies showed that the experience of parental imprisonment could also have an impact on family formation processes when children grow older. These previous studies, however, used relatively short follow-up periods, up to adolescence or early adulthood. The current study uses a Dutch multigenerational dataset with follow-ups at, on average, age 28 (N = 1,147) and 47 (N = 1,241), which makes it possible to also examine life events that usually occur later in life. Official registration data were used to examine the relationship of parental offending and parental incarceration with offspring’s family formation patterns. Results show that children who experienced parental imprisonment were less likely to marry than those with parents who were never convicted. However, when they did marry, it was at a younger age and more often while being pregnant. Children of prisoners were also younger when they had their first child. Most of these differences were also found while comparing children of prisoners with children of convicted but not imprisoned parents. This suggests that these different family formation patterns are specifically related to the imprisonment of the parent rather than to the parent’s criminal behavior.
Unemployment delays first birth but not for all. Life stage and educational differences in the effects of employment uncertainty on first births
This study investigates how unemployment is associated with the transition to parenthood among men and women in times of increased instability in the labour market. We provide novel insights into how education and life stage might modify the link between unemployment and fertility. We focus on a Nordic welfare state, Finland, and apply event history models to a rich register sample covering the years 1988–2009 (N = 306,413). We find that unemployment or a weaker labour market attachment tends to delay parenthood among both men and women, but the association is stronger for men. In most groups, the accumulation of unemployment periods is associated with a lower rate of entry into parenthood. However, among young, low-educated women, even long-term or recurring unemployment seems to promote first childbearing, and the generally negative association between unemployment and entry into parenthood does not apply to young, low-educated men. The effect of unemployment is largely mediated by the low income of unemployed persons. Overall, our findings suggest that in a modern, gender-egalitarian welfare society, better employment prospects promote transition to parenthood in a very similar fashion among men and women, but the effects are strongly modified by education and life course stage.
The Impact of Job Uncertainty on First-Birth Postponement
Abstract
This paper aims to advance our understanding of entry into employment with uncertain conditions in Italy and its causal impact on the onset of the fertility process. We adopt the potential outcome approach to causal inference so as to quantify the net effect of having a first job with a temporary or a permanent contract on the propensity to have a first child within the first five years of employment. The analysis is based on retrospective data from the nationally representative 2009 Family and Social Subjects survey. Our results suggest that 7% of potential first-birth postponement among women and 5% of potential postponement among men is attributable to jobs with uncertain conditions. These individuals would have had a first child if they had had a permanent job. For women, potential postponement is elevated among those with higher education (reaching 16%), while for men potential postponement is especially visible among those with low and medium education. With this paper we quantify a non-negligible negative effect for early exposure to labour market uncertainties on potential first-birth postponement in Italy.
Social Differentials in the Effect of Formal Childcare on the Transition to Parenthood': An Assessment of Varying Effects by Education, Working Hours and Migration Background
Although the hypothesis that formal childcare reconciles work and family life – and thus stimulates the transition to parenthood – is theoretically well-grounded and partially empirically supported, available literature has hitherto insufficiently acknowledged differential effects by population subgroups. This is remarkable as population subgroups are likely to exhibit different labour market opportunities and opportunity costs of childbearing, varying attitudes toward work-family combination and the use of formal childcare, and differential institutional knowledge with respect to formal childcare. Using unique register-data for the complete residential Belgian population at the turn of the century, this study applies random and fixed effects hazard models to assess varying associations between local childcare availability and dual earner fertility by level of education, working hours and migration background. Results indicate that lagged variation in childcare coverage across and within municipalities over time is positively associated to first birth hazards for all types of dual earner couples. Whereas varying effects by level of education indicate social differentiation in the sense that the positive impact of local childcare coverage is stronger for highly educated couples, differences by working hours and migration background are more limited and insignificant. The Belgian context provides an excellent laboratory to address this topic for two reasons. First, as a result of its top-ranked position with respect to formal childcare during the 2000s, the results are of interest to countries with lower formal childcare coverage. Second, Belgium exhibits considerable social differentials in labour market opportunities, the uptake and benefits of formal childcare.
Crisis, recession and social resilience: a biographical life course analysis
Author(s): Jane Gray, Jennifer Dagg
Parent-child Relationships and Interracial First Union Formation in the United States
The family of origin was once considered an important “third party” in shaping offspring romantic relationships. However, the increased independence of young adults challenges this idea by suggesting that parents today may have less control over children’s romantic lives than prior generations. Drawing on a “linked lives” framework, this paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and discrete-time competing risks event history analysis to examine whether an individual’s relationship with parents during adolescence affects entry into first unions with same- or different-race partners in young adulthood. Findings suggest that stronger parent-child ties in adolescence deterred entry into any union in young adulthood– same-race or interracial, relative to forming no unions. However, stronger intergenerational ties were associated with an increased likelihood of forming same-race unions versus interracial unions. When the definition of union was expanded to include direct marital first unions versus cohabiting first unions, results suggest that stronger intergenerational ties increased the likelihood of same-race versus interracial cohabiting first unions, but did not significantly influence same-race versus interracial direct marital first unions. Analyses by respondent race indicate few differences among Whites and non-Whites. These findings highlight the potential for parental influence on young adults’ romantic relationships in an era of increasing family diversity.
Mechanisms of family formation: An application of Hidden Markov Models to a life course process
Life courses consist of complex patterns of correlated events and spells. The nature and strength of these correlations is known to depend on both micro- and macro- covariates. Life-course models such as event-history analysis and sequence analysis are not well equipped to deal with the processual and latent character of the decision- making process. We argue that Hidden Markov models satisfy the requirements of a life course model. To illustrate their usefulness, this study will use Hidden Markov chains to model the trajectories of family formation. We used data from the Generations and Gender Programme to estimate Hidden Markov models. The results show the potential of this approach to unravel the mechanisms underlying life-course decision making and how these processes differ both by gender and education.
The Inseparability of Human Agency and Linked Lives
The notion that people make choices and take actions that determine the outcomes of their lives – human agency – is a central principle of the life course paradigm. Unfortunately, conceptualizations of agency, like larger developmental and sociological theories, often assume that agency is limited to individuals who are “developmentally normal.” We draw upon the thought of social scientists and disability scholars, as well as the life history of a woman with intellectual disability, to address the logical, ethical, and empirical flaws of this assumption. To rectify these problems, life course theory and research should pay greater attention to how agency is interwoven with another central principle of the life course paradigm: linked lives. This principle is that an individual’s life cannot be understood in isolation of their interdependencies with other persons. Although human agency and linked lives are discussed as separate principles of the life course, they are not separate in lived experience. We demonstrate that, for all people and at all times in life, human agency is dependent upon interpersonal relationships. It is therefore imperative to examine intersections of agency and linked lives in order to more fully and accurately understand life course dynamics in diverse populations. Human agency is profoundly affected by interpersonal relationships and other social factors. Because agency and linked lives are inseparable, agency cannot be conceptualized as an individual characteristic of “independent” actors. We conclude by discussing how life course research can more fully attend to the relationship between agency and linked lives.
Influence of Social Connections on Smoking Behavior across the Life Course
Although we know much about demographic patterns of smoking, we know less about people’s explanations for when, how and why they avoid, develop, or alter smoking habits and how these explanations are linked to social connections across the life course. We analyze data from in-depth interviews with 60 adults aged 25-89 from a large southwestern U.S. city to consider how social connections shape smoking behavior across the life course. Respondents provided explanations for how and why they avoided, initiated, continued, and/or quit smoking. At various times, social connections were viewed as having both positive and negative influences on smoking behavior. Both people who never smoked and continuous smokers pointed to the importance of early life social connections in shaping decisions to smoke or not smoke, and viewed later connections (e.g., marriage, coworkers) as less important. People who quit smoking or relapsed tended to attribute their smoking behavior to social connections in adulthood rather than early life. People who changed their smoking behavior highlighted the importance of transitions as related to social connections, with more instability in social connections often discussed by relapsed smokers as a reason for instability in smoking status. A qualitative approach together with a life course perspective highlights the pivotal role of social connections in shaping trajectories of smoking behavior throughout the life course.
Palestinian Widows in Israel: Between the Hammer and the Anvil
Palestinian women in Israel have a marginal social status which stems from the intersection of being part of an ethnic minority and of a patriarchal society. This low status is further exacerbated by widowhood. The present qualitative study, based on semi-structured interviews among 16 Palestinian widows in Israel, sought to explore strategies employed by these women to cope with financial and social challenges owing to the structural complexity at the interface of state law, religious law, and custom. The findings show that these women are forced to remain single to avoid losing property and child custody, both which may be legally claimed by the late husband’s extended family. In addition, the findings demonstrate different forms of agency the women employ in the face of the tight control of their lives by the husband’s extended family. Policy changes would ameliorate the complexity of the circumstances affecting Palestinian widows in Israel.
The de-standardisation of the life course in Portugal. A cross-cohort analysis using entropy analysis
This article addresses the question of life course de-standardisation in Portugal, drawing on a trajectory-based holistic approach. The de-standardisation hypothesis presupposes that, over recent decades, occupational and family trajectories became gradually more variable. Our methodological strategy to test these hypotheses uses entropy measures and assesses how cohort and gender influence standardisation. We used these measures to determine the heterogeneity in co-residence and occupational trajectories between the ages of 7 and 35. In a second stage, we used regression models to estimate if cohort, gender, education and socio-economic class associate with co-residence and occupational entropy. The paper draws on data from the ‘Family Trajectories and Social Networks: The life course in an intergenerational perspective’ research project (n = 1500), which included questions on co-residence and work employment history of Portuguese individuals born in three different cohorts (1935-40; 1950-55; 1970-75). Findings show that standardisation and de-standardisation dynamics coexist, operating differently depending on the life domain and the stage of life. While early family trajectories are more standardised in younger cohorts, later stages are slightly more diverse, particularly among women. As far as occupational trajectories are concerned, formative years are much more standardised in the younger cohort, while adulthood is de-standardised in all cohorts. We discuss results in light of the life course regime and gendering hypotheses.
Family formation trajectories across borders: A sequence analysis approach to Senegalese migrants in Europe
This article examines the relationship between the timing of international migration and family formation trajectories (union formation and fertility) of Sub-Saharan African migrants in Europe. Longitudinal life-history data from Senegalese migrants in France, Italy and Spain, collected as part of the Migrations between Africa and Europe (MAFE) project are used. Applying sequence analysis techniques and distinguishing between men and women, individuals are grouped into different clusters according to the (dis-)similarities in their family formation trajectories before and after migration. Furthermore, multinomial logistic regression models are used to test associations between individual and contextual characteristics and the obtained clusters. The results show important differences between men and women regarding their migration-family formation trajectories. Moreover, the interrelatedness of family and migration events was more pronounced among women than men. The regression analysis indicates that male and female trajectories are related in particular to age and the country of destination, but there are also differences by educational level. The findings stress the importance of differentiating between men and women when studying the family formation behavior of migrants.
Childhood socioeconomic circumstances, social status, and health in older age: Are they related in China'
It is well known that in western countries, people with disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances during childhood are at a significantly higher risk of ill health in older age. This study further questions whether in China, individuals’ different childhood socioeconomic circumstances and social status continue to affect their life-long health. Furthermore, do later-life socioeconomic circumstances affect health so that childhood conditions no longer play a significant role' The influence of social mobility and accumulation was also tested. The analysis was based on the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) 2013 and CHARLS life history survey. Health outcomes were measured based on self-reported health, disability for activities of daily life, depression symptoms, and cognitive impairment. In addition to measurements of childhood, the analysis included current socioeconomic circumstances, current health behaviors, and demographic characteristics. Using ordered logit or logit and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression models, the study shows the existence of the association between childhood conditions and later health in China. After adjusting for current socioeconomic circumstances, social status was no longer related to later health. However, childhood socioeconomic circumstances still significantly influenced health at a later age. Advantaged socioeconomic circumstances in the life course (high stability) provided the best protection for later health. However, moving downward—that is, experiencing childhood socioeconomic advantage but later-life socioeconomic disadvantage—was the most detrimental to later health. Overall, this study provides new evidence from China to support the notion that health in older age is related to dynamic processes structured by the social stratification system. Thus, this study emphasizes an integrated health policy based on the premise of maximizing health over the entire life course.
Destandardization in later age spans in Western Germany. Evidence from sequence analysis of Family Life Courses
Author(s): Okka Zimmermann
Identification of developmental trajectory classes: Comparing three latent class methods using simulated and real data
Introduction
Several statistical methods are available to identify developmental trajectory classes, but it is unclear which method is most suitable. The aim of this study was to determine whether latent class analysis, latent class growth analysis or growth mixture modeling was most appropriate for identifying developmental trajectory classes.
Methods
We compared the three methods in a simulation study in several scenarios, which varied regarding e.g. sample size and degree of separation between classes. The simulation study was replicated with a real data example concerning anxiety/depression symptoms measured over 6 time points in the Tracking Adolescent Individuals’ Lives Survey (TRAILS, N = 2,227)
Results
Growth mixture modeling was least biased or equally biased compared to latent class analysis and latent class growth analysis in all scenarios. In TRAILS, the shapes of the trajectories were rather similar over the three methods, but class sizes differed slightly. A 4-class growth mixture model performed best, based on several fit indices, interpretability and clinical relevance.
Conclusions
Growth mixture modeling seems most suitable to identify developmental trajectory classes.
Who makes the decision to have children' Couples’ childbearing intentions and actual childbearing
This study investigates how the childbearing intentions of women and men in couples affect actual childbearing over the following years with the aim to explore whether women’s or men’s intentions may be more important. The study is set in Sweden, a country known for ranking high in terms of gender equality and a country with relatively high fertility. We use the Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS), which gives information about both partners’ long-term childbearing intentions in 2009, and follow these couples for five years with register data on childbearing. In 30 percent of the couples, both partners intended to have a child, and out of these about three quarters have a child. The results show that, in general, both partners need to intend to have a child for the couple to do so but that women’s intentions tend to have more influence over the decision to have a second or third child. This phenomenon is interpreted as decision-making in relation to the cost and utility of children for women and men.
Destination as a Process: Sibling Similarity in Early Socioeconomic Trajectories
This paper proposes a process-oriented, life course perspective on intergenerational mobility by comparing the early socioeconomic trajectories of siblings to those of unrelated persons. Based on rich Finnish register data (N = 21744), the findings show that social origin affects not only final outcomes at given points in the life course but also longitudinal socioeconomic trajectories from ages 17 to 35 in early adulthood. We contribute to previous literature in three ways. First, we show that there is a pronounced similarity in the early socioeconomic trajectories of siblings. This similarity is stronger for same-sex siblings and stronger for brothers than for sisters. Second, we show that sibling similarity in full trajectories cannot be reduced to similarity in outcomes, i.e., siblings are not only more similar in the final outcomes that they obtain but also in the pathways that lead them to these outcomes. Third, our findings support that sibling similarity follows a U-shaped pattern by social class, i.e., similarity is especially strong in disadvantaged trajectories, weak among middle-class young adults, and increases again within the most advantaged trajectories. We conclude that measures of social mobility that concentrate on final outcomes are at risk of underestimating the association between social origin and destination because social inequalities are formed across the life course, not just at the end of specific life phases.
Quantitative methods of life course research: Make use of diversity, but always know what you are doing
Author(s): Michael Windzio
On heuristics, theoretical foundations, accounting schemes and theories
Author(s): Karl Ulrich Mayer
Holistic analysis of the life course: Methodological challenges and new perspectives
Author(s): Eva Lelièvre
Using longitudinal designs and online micro-narrative data to further our understanding of biography and the life course
Author(s): Oliver C. Robinson
Methodological diversity in life course research: Blessing or curse'
Author(s): Aart C. Liefbroer
Viewpoints, travel sense, and companions along the journey
Author(s): Elizabeth Thomson
Anticipation and agency over time: A focus on meso-level dynamics
Author(s): Diana Kuh
How might life history theory contribute to life course theory'
Author(s): Gert Stulp, Rebecca Sear
The Promises and Pitfalls of Life-Course Agency: Commentary on the Theory Articles
Author(s): Martin Kohli
An Economist’s View of Theoretical Advances in Life Course Research Commentary on the Theory Articles
Author(s): Miriam Beblo
Introduction to the Special Issue “Theoretical and Methodological Frontiers in Life Course Research”
Author(s): Laura Bernardi, Johannes Huinink, Richard A. Settersten
From the life-course cube to an open state-space system
Author(s): Ingrid Schoon
Adding life to one’s added years: Self- regulatory balancing of life domains across old age
Author(s): Christopher M. Napolitano, Alexandra M. Freund
Life-course approach to early occurrence of diabetes mellitus: Probable contribution of collective violence in Mexico
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing health problem among the pediatric population in the world, and particularly in Mexico. Official data in Mexico reported that during the period from 2003 to 2013 there was an increase in the cumulative incidence among older adolescents between 2010 and 2012, which decreased to the usual measures in 2013. All these variations occurred in a period in which collective violence permeated all levels of Mexican society. It can be argued that there might be a relationship between the two phenomena.
This is an ecologic analytical study of trends over time comprising older adolescents (15–19 year olds). T2DM cumulative incidence and mortality rates attributable to violent death (VD) were standardized by direct method according to the World Health Organization. Data were sourced from nationwide official reports. Time series analysis was performed with ARIMA models and significant predictors. The disease ecology analysis was done using cluster analysis.
Using significant predictors with ARIMA models, we found that the male VD mortality rates series could forecast 63.1% of the temporal variability of the cumulative incidence of T2DM series. Geographically, states with higher rates of violence also showed a higher incidence of T2DM.
These data suggest that collective violence may make some contribution to the early onset of T2DM among adolescents, particularly in those regions most affected by violence. These findings can be conducive to opening new lines of research to explore the relationship between variables at the individual level and the clinical implications.
Employment trajectories in heterogeneous regions: Evidence from Germany
To what extent do regional characteristics influence employment trajectories' Do regional factors diversely affect the employment careers of different sociodemographic groups' By investigating these questions, we extend current life course research in two ways: First, from a conceptual perspective, we use approaches from regional economics in addition to established sociological labour market theories to gain insights into the effects of regional determinants on individual labour market outcomes. Second, from a methodological point of view, we conduct event history analyses based on a German dataset that contains information on individuals, firms and regions. Our results show that there are considerable regional heterogeneities regarding population density and the amount of human capital endowment, both of which influence working careers differently. Regional agglomeration predominantly offers opportunities regarding employment trajectories, while regional human capital accumulation increases employment risks. Additionally, our findings indicate that group-specific inequalities regarding employment careers can be weakened or even strengthened by regional frame conditions. Female and foreign employees benefit most from denser regions and from a higher human capital endowment. By contrast, the unemployment risks of workers who previously experienced unemployment periods during their working lives are increased by both of these regional characteristics. Findings regarding education level are mixed: Workers with occupational qualifications profit from regional agglomeration to a greater extent than do low or even generally qualified workers. However, a high local human capital endowment leads to skill segregation between vocationally trained and highly qualified employees.
Who supports whom' Do adult children living at home share their incomes with their parents'
Across the developed world, young adults are now more likely to live with their parents than they were two or three decades ago. This is typically viewed, both in the media and in scholarly research, as an economic burden on parents. This article investigates, for the first time, the extent to which financial support is also given in the opposite direction, with young people contributing to their households’ living costs. We use data on 19 European countries from the 2010 European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (N = 553 in Austria to N = 2,777 in Italy). Many young adults do share their incomes with their families, with the degree of sharing being the highest among the poorest households. In a substantial minority of households, particularly in lower-income countries, the contributions of young adult household members keep households out of poverty.
How Much and Why Does the Mum Matter' Mechanisms Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Smoking
Offspring whose mother smokes during pregnancy have higher risk of smoking themselves. In this study, epigenetics, antisocial behaviours, and social learning were investigated as potential mechanisms of mother-to-child transmission of smoking among a population sample drawn from the Birth Cohort Study 1970. Findings on daughters showed that the direct epigenetic hypothesis was mediated by social learning mechanisms, suggesting that exposure to maternal smoking across childhood and adolescence strongly explained why the smoking habits of mother and daughter correlate. However, prenatal smoking effects on sons were only partially explained by observational learning of mother smoking habits. Our estimates provided evidence concerning the potential role also played by the child's persistent antisocial behaviours. These results were confirmed after controlling for early life circumstances and current socioeconomic conditions. Policy implications of the results are discussed.
A life course perspective on working after retirement: What role does the work history play'
Scientific studies on the predictors of working after retirement have mostly neglected individuals’ work histories. We present an integrative framework based on life course theory to investigate the extent to which characteristics of work histories explain the decision to work after retirement. The data are retrieved from the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), combining information on life histories with information on current retirement. The results of our logistic models show that the larger the share of part-time work or self-employment over the work career, the higher the likelihood to work after retirement. Also, those with high occupational status and flexible careers are particularly likely to work after retirement. Regarding gender, we found that divorced women are particularly likely to work after retirement, but only if they did not remarry. We conclude that inequalities that develop across the life course continue to play a role after retirement.
Life course social connectedness: Age-cohort trends in social participation
ABSTRACT
Social connectedness has emerged in recent decades as a key determinant of well-being. Considering its importance, several studies have sought to describe how overall trends in society have changed over the years, while others have been more concerned with how it changes as individuals age. This study set out to synthesize these two strands of research by describing age-cohort trends of social connectedness, using social participation as the key indicator. Data are from the Americans’ Changing Lives survey, a nationally representative panel dataset with an accelerated longitudinal design, collected over 25 years. Multivariate Bayesian generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) were utilized to estimate age-cohort trajectories of formal and informal social participation. Findings show that even as informal social participation decreases with age, formal social participation increases–suggesting some form of compensatory mechanism. Further, while informal social participation remains stable across cohorts, formal social participation increases in later cohorts. These results suggest that the isolation of old age or overall societal declines in social participation in America may be overestimated by some observers, but more research is needed to more comprehensively describe how other aspects of social connectedness are distributed over the life course
Do Parental Resources Moderate the Relationship Between Women’s Income and Timing of Parenthood'
ABSTRACT
Previous research has concentrated on the associations between higher incomes and delayed entry into parenthood, disadvantaged family background and early childbirth, and the availability of public childcare and fertility. This paper examines the extent to which parental resources moderate the relationship between women’s income and entry into parenthood, comparing two countries with very different levels of public family support: Finland and the United States. We use Cox regressions with data from the 1979 US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Finnish Census Panel data to demonstrate both striking similarities and differences between the two countries. First, high-income women from disadvantaged backgrounds postpone entry into parenthood in both countries. Second, high parental resources are associated with postponed entry into parenthood among low-income women. However, we find differences between the two countries regarding which parental resource is most influential. While parental income is important in the US, parental education matters most in Finland.
Adolescent sexual norms and college sexual experiences: Do high school norms influence college behavior'
Research on adolescent and young adult sexuality typically does not examine how social norms and other messages learned in adolescence may impact sexual behavior in emerging adulthood. This research uses a life course framework to examine how social norms about sexuality in high school influence subsequent sexual behavior within university cultures promoting casual sex. Forty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted with undergraduate women on a large public Western United States university campus. Women were asked about family, peer, school, and community norms about sexuality in adolescence, and their sexual and romantic relationships in college. Five groups of women emerged from the data: the Religious, the Relationship Seekers, the High School Partiers, the Late Bloomers, and the Career Women. Women within each group had similar normative backgrounds and also utilized similar strategies to integrate into cultures of casual sex on their University campus. It is concluded that social norms from adolescence have striking implications for sexual behavior in the college setting, and that research on sexuality must adopt a life course perspective that acknowledges women’s previous normative environments in order to understand women’s sexual behavior in college.
The Life Course Cube: A Tool for Studying Lives
This paper proposes a conceptualization of the life course as a set of behavioral processes characterized by interdependencies that cross time, life domains, and levels of analysis. We first discuss the need for a systematized approach to life course theory that integrates parallel and partially redundant concepts developed in a variety of different disciplines. We then introduce the ‘life course cube,’ which graphically illustrates and defines the time-domain-level interdependencies and their multiple interactions that are central to understanding life courses. Finally, in an appendix, we offer a formal framework to account for these interactions in a language that can be readily adopted across disciplines. Our aim is to provide a consistent and parsimonious foundation to further develop theories and methods of life course research and integrate life course scholarship across disciplines.
Beyond the nuclear family: Personal networks in light of work-family trajectories
Individuals develop personal networks in a cumulative way over the life course, with early adulthood being a critical period with multiple transitions relating to family formation and entry into the labour market. Existing research on personal networks and the life course usually stresses the impact of single life transitions and events on the composition of personal networks. Contrastingly, this paper investigates the impact of whole work-family trajectories over a retrospective time period of 20 years corresponding to early adulthood (roughly 20 to 40 years old) on the composition of personal networks. Drawing on a Swiss sample of individuals born between 1970 and 1975, results revealed the critical impact of the family trajectories for the development of personal networks, and showed how the current diversity of personal networks is accounted for by trajectories deviating from the family developmental model.
Widowhood, depression and blood pressure: A U.S.-England comparison
Objectives
This study queried associations of older adults’ widowhood with their systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), and mediation of these linkages by depression.
Methods
Data were from the 2008 and 2012 waves of two surveys: the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA). Analyses used lagged dependent variable models to examine widowhood effects, and a counterfactual approach to test mediation.
Results
Positive widowhood-BP linkages were found only among HRS women. Associations were negative for HRS men’s systolic BP, and absent in ELSA. These sex- and societal differences seemed driven not by linkages of widowhood with depression—which remained constant across all subgroups—but by that of depression with BP. For both outcomes, the latter was positive for HRS women, negative for HRS men, and absent in ELSA. Accordingly, depression mediated over a third of HRS women’s widowhood effects. A substantial proportion of this influence also seemed to bypass this psychological state.
Discussion
Results indicate a need for more sex-specific basic research into depression’s physiological impact, and on non-distress mechanisms linking life events to physiology. They also suggest that single-country studies may lead to flawed conclusions on the biological implications of life course factors.
Grandparenthood in China and Western Europe: An analysis of CHARLS and SHARE
Grandparenthood is a fascinating research area that not only brings together three generations and multiple roles in different life domains, but also echoes social contexts across historical times and places. Comparative research on grandparenthood, however, rarely includes non-western countries. This article seeks to answer the question of how grandparenthood differs between Western Europe and China by using comparable representative surveys of older adults. We extend the literature in two ways by showing that: 1) compared to Western Europe, becoming a grandparent occurs earlier and is virtually universal in both Urban and Rural China – the probability of being a grandparent is over 80% for Chinese by the time they are 55, while the same cannot be said for Western Europeans until they are aged between 70 and 80; and 2) the role-overlaps with grandparenthood are different for older Chinese and Western Europeans. The probability of being a working grandparent in Rural China is about twice that in Western Europe, while the rate is similar to Western Europeans for Urban Chinese. Chinese grandparents are also more likely to live with their children than Western Europeans. Conversely, as all family transitions come earlier for Chinese but life expectancy is shorter, the probabilities that grandparenthood overlaps with widowhood and filial roles are similar to that in Western Europe. Taken together, this study provides an overarching picture of the characteristics of grandparenthood in different societies that are fundamental to the meaning, performance, and impact of grandparental roles and relevant to a better understanding of grandparenthood worldwide.
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    • Ab dem 25. Mai 2018 können Sie in Ihrem Kundenkonto unter „meine Einstellungen“ den gewünschten Datenschutz selbst einstellen.

    Bei Fragen wenden Sie sich bitte jederzeit an unseren vub-Kundenservice und Ihre bekannten Ansprechpartner unter premiumservice@vub.de.

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