Aggression and violent behavior

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Aggression and Violent Behavior, A Review Journal is a multidisciplinary journal that publishes substantive and integrative reviews, as well as summary reports of innovative ongoing clinical research programs on a wide range of topics germane to the field of aggression and violent behavior. Papers encompass a large variety of issues, populations, and domains, including homicide (serial, spree, and mass murder: sexual homicide), sexual deviance and assault (rape, serial rape, child molestation, paraphilias), child and youth violence (firesetting, gang violence, juvenile sexual offending), family violence (child physical and sexual abuse, child neglect, incest, spouse and elder abuse), genetic predispositions, and the physiological basis of aggression.Manuscripts that articulate disparate orientations will be welcomed, given that this journal will be cross-disciplinary and cross-theoretical. Indeed, papers will emanate from numerous disciplines, psychology, psychiatry, criminology, crimi
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Young people's conceptualizations of the nature of cyberbullying: A systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research
Author(s): Rebecca Dennehy, Sarah Meaney, Kieran A. Walsh, Carol Sinnott, Mary Cronin, Ella Arensman
Sexual violence and nightlife: A systematic literature review
Author(s): Zara Quigg, Charlotte Bigland, Karen Hughes, Mariangels Duch, Montse Juan
Time's up: Recognising sexual violence as a public policy issue: A qualitative content analysis of sexual violence cases and the media
Author(s): Camille Aroustamian
High self-control may support ‘success’ in psychopathic leadership: Self-control versus impulsivity in psychopathic leadership
In the last few years scholars have postulated that non-institutionalized psychopathic individuals may be overrepresented in leadership positions. In this paper we juxtapose theory and research on the profile of those high in psychopathy in leadership positions with the traditional profile of those high in psychopathy in prisons and institutions. We hypothesize that the psychopathic leader has a unique combination of traits that enables and drives such a leader to be ‘successful’ in a position of power. We propose that the differentiating trait in the profile of the psychopathic leader may be the trait high self-control. This is in contrast with the traditional profile of institutionalized psychopathic individuals in which levels of self-control are typically low. Furthermore, we hypothesize that although the traits of high self-control and impulsivity are apparently contradictory, the conjunction of high self-control with one specific domain of impulsivity could further amplify the ‘success’ of the psychopathic leader.
The motivations of female child sexual offenders: A systematic review of the literature
The aim of the literature review presented here was to identify goals and offense-supportive cognitions that act as motivational factors in the sexual offending against children committed by females. A scoping search revealed that there was currently no review in this area. A systematic search of empirical research that examined motivations in female child sexual offenders (FCSOs) was initiated based upon an inclusion and exclusion criteria. Identified studies were screened and reference lists were hand searched. A quality assessment tool reviewed the strengths and weaknesses of the final 13 articles. A data extraction form established for the current review enabled the extraction of standardized information. The review identified support for many motivational factors in FCSOs, which have previously been referred to in the literature. The review has categorized these into motivations and offense-supportive cognitions. There was strong support for the following motivations and goals: offending under coercion of an abusive co-offender, offending to meet one's own needs and offending to feel power and control over another. The strongest offense-supportive cognitions were entitlement and uncontrollability. There was an apparent overlap between the two categories, with some offense-supportive cognitions and functions amalgamating to facilitate females to engage in offending behavior. Limitations of the present literature and suggestions for future research are discussed.
A meta-analysis of childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence perpetration
Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration is a serious public health concern. It is necessary to understand and identify the antecedents of IPV perpetration. This article aimed to report a meta-analysis of the relationship between childhood maltreatment (CM) and IPV perpetration, and explore the moderating effects of gender and marital status. Examination of the literature containing quantitative measurements of both CM and IPV perpetration produced a sample of 87 effect sizes (N = 32,544) for review. Results based on random-effects model indicated a significant positive relationship between total CM and IPV perpetration (r = 0.16, p < .001). Further subgroup analyses revealed that all three types of CM (childhood physical abuse, psychological abuse, and sexual abuse) were positively related to IPV perpetration (r = 0.17, p < .001; r = 0.13, p < .001; r = 0.13, p < .001 respectively). Moreover, the moderation analyses revealed that the association between CM and IPV perpetration was stronger for males than for females (Q = 15.73, p < .001). However, this relation is not moderated by marital status (Q = 0.16, p = .692). In conclusion, there is an association between CM and IPV perpetration, and it is moderated by gender.
Intimate partner homicide: A meta-analysis of risk factors
Homicide in intimate relationships is one of the most prevalent causes of death for women worldwide. This meta-analysis aims to identify and integrate, through analytical and statistical methodologies, the risk factors associated with intimate partner homicide. The research was performed in different databases and led to the inclusion of 28 empirical articles in this meta-analysis. Only quantitative papers with a comparison group (non-fatal perpetrators, other homicides, intimate partner homicide followed by suicide) were considered for this meta-analysis. The results showed that the risk factors related to abusive couple dynamics (threatening the victim with a weapon, any kind of threatening, death threats, bottlenecks, stalking and controlling behaviours, abuse during pregnancy and physical violence) are associated with a higher probability of intimate partner homicide. Further studies should provide more clarification of the factors associated with this phenomenon to improve the efficiency of the criminal investigation of intimate partner homicides, making crime repression and the protection of victims more effective.
Putting coercive actions in context: Reconceptualizing motives for intimate partner violence perpetration
Author(s): Meg Stairmand, Devon L.L. Polaschek, Louise Dixon
The role of shame in developmental trajectories towards severe targeted school violence: An in-depth multiple case study
Most research on severe targeted school violence (STSV) - defined as planned offenses committed by former or current students intending to kill one or more persons associated with their school - is related to risk factor approaches or theoretically informed models and thus lacks an empirical explanation of underlying mechanisms and the dynamic of contextual variables that caused or accompanied perpetrators' negative development towards violence. To contribute to a comprehensive and dynamic account of the social and psychological processes leading to STSV, a multiple in-depth case study analysis was conducted. Nineteen cases of STSV (perpetrated between 1999 and 2013 in Germany) were identified in a structured media search. Using data about offenses and perpetrators from police investigation files, qualitative analysis revealed that developmental trajectories need to be understood in terms of emotions in addition to rational cognitive processes, and that one key emotion is shame. Three relevant psychological turning points (episodes that alter offenders' life courses and impact later choices, behaviors and/or values) relating to experiences of and coping with shame (namely two shame crises and one trigger event) were found in all life histories under investigation. The perpetrators' coping differed between cases, which resulted in two types of trajectories: Eight perpetrators showed internalized shame coping strategies (e.g. social withdrawal), and eleven perpetrators responded with externalized coping strategies to feelings of shame (e.g. aggressive behavior). Relevant underlying mechanisms, time-related categories, and person-environment factors that have impacts on specific coping mechanisms and the resultant developmental pathways towards STSV are discussed.
Forensic mental health expert testimony and judicial decision-making: A systematic literature review
Forensic mental health expertise (FMHE) is an important source of information for decision-makers in the criminal justice system. This expertise can be used in various decisions in a criminal trial, such as criminal responsibility and sentencing decisions. Despite an increasing body of empirical literature concerning FMHE, it remains largely unknown how and to what extent this expertise affects judicial decisions. The aim of this review was therefore to provide insight in the relationship between FMHE and different judicial decisions by synthesizing published, quantitative empirical studies. Based on a systematic literature search using multiple online databases and selection criteria, a total of 27 studies are included in this review. The majority of studies were experiments conducted in the US among mock jurors. Most studies focused on criminal responsibility or sentencing decisions. Studies concerning criminal responsibility found consistent results in which psychotic defendants of serious, violent crimes were considered not guilty by reason of insanity more often than defendants with psychopathic disorders. Results for length and type of sanctions were less consistent and were often affected by perceived behavioral control, recidivism risk and treatability. Studies on possible prejudicial effects of FMHE are almost non-existent. Evaluation of findings, limitations and implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Executive dysfunction, violence and aggression
Executive Functio1ns (EFs) is an umbrella expression used for several processes and subprocesses encompassing goal-oriented behavior and decision-making strategies. However, the extent to which impaired EFs relate to and characterize different types of criminal behavior and aggressiveness is not clear. Similarly, research on the association between EFs and psychopathy has also produced mixed findings. The failure to disaggregate between different types of crime and antisocial individuals can impede the identification of specific neurocognitive mechanisms associated with crime. We reviewed the extent to which EFs (according to Miyake latent variable analysis) are associated with violent and non-violent crime, impulsive and premeditated aggression as well as psychopathic traits.
Findings, although nonconsensual, suggest a more nuanced view on the association between EFs and crime, suggesting that different executive domains might be more compromised in violent and impulsive individuals, and specific psychopathy facets are more associated with executive dysfunction and criminality. Studies in line with this approach will allow offenders to benefit from intervention strategies that will address their specific deficits, optimizing their EFs and contributing to better cognitive management in demanding and complex situations, such as criminal and violent deterrence.
Identifying factors of sexual violence against women and protection of their rights in Bangladesh
Sexual violence against women is considered a gender specific human rights violation, and is a form of discrimination that continues women's subordination and patriarchal structures throughout all levels of society. Recognizing the high number of sexual violence against women, there is increasing emphasis on addressing the rights of women in Bangladesh. Following this, the purpose of this paper is to identify the factors of sexual violence against women in Bangladesh. Moreover, the study outlines the barriers of women to access in the current justice system. Finally, the paper demonstrates the social and psychological impact of the victims of sexual violence. To conduct this study, I have reviewed relevant articles, books, statistics, reports and other related literature situated within the framework of my subject. In order to analyze the data, I employed qualitative methods and thematic analysis techniques and I applied a radical feminists' theoretical lens. Among the main findings, the study finds that patriarchal social structure, forced marriage, cultural practice, barriers in access to justice are the main factors of sexual violence in Bangladesh.
Correctional rehabilitation and human functioning: An embodied, embedded, and enactive approach
Theories of crime are based in an underlying understanding of human functioning. In this paper we argue that current theories of correctional rehabilitation imply a model of functioning which is reward-oriented, multifactorial, norm-based, and non-agential. This approach is seen as affording limited explanatory value, leading to problems with treatment efficacy. We outline an alternative perspective of functioning as being embodied, embedded, and enactive (3e). 3e places an emphasis on the individual as an embodied whole, in an adaptive relationship with their physical and social environment. We argue that 3e prioritizes the experience and agency of the individual, with a commitment to viewing a person as a functional whole drawing on comprehensive multilevel explanations. 3e places a strong emphasis on the role of individual affectivity and emotion as a core component of functioning. Finally, implications of the 3e model for correctional practice are discussed.
The contributory role of psychopathology and inhibitory control in the case of mass shooter James Holmes
In this article, the case of Mr. Holmes is discussed in detail with a particular focus on the treatment he received when he was at graduate school in the months leading up to the shooting and, primarily, the findings from the sanity evaluation carried out by Dr. Metzner. In this chapter the I3 model is applied to the case of Mr. Holmes. His attack can be seen as resulting from an increase in dispositional and situational impelling factors and a decrease in inhibiting factors, based on a detailed review on available information, the instigation, impellance and inhibition factors potentially present during the lead up to the shooting (approximately five months) and present at the time of the shooting. Instigation factors included a breakup with his girlfriend and academic failure at graduate school. Impellance factors included chronic (i.e., persistent) and severe mental illness associated with psychotic features (e.g., delusions, hallucinations and disordered thinking); social anxiety disorder (and trichotillomania); chronic suicidal thinking; chronic homicidal thinking and his perceived biological shortcomings. Inhibition factors included experiencing a “loss of fear” or “overcoming fear” of the consequences of killing people; prescription medication which may have increased his inhibition (specifically, antidepressant medication, sertraline — he was eventually prescribed 150 mg of sertraline) and individuals with ASD may be ‘more readier’ compared to others to act on psychotic impulses. This may have been what was happening in the case of Mr. Holmes why he was potentially more vulnerable to acting on his psychotic ideas and beliefs. Also, inhibition caused by his severe mental illness associated with psychotic features (later diagnosed by the four psychiatrists before the trial as either schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or schizotypal personality disorder).
Fighting fire with fire: Exploring the potential of technology to help victims combat intimate partner violence
Every country in the world has been affected by the epidemic of intimate partner violence. It is now known that technology facilitates intimate partner violence by enabling perpetrators new ways of abusing, controlling, harassing, and isolating their current or former partner. However, there has been a tendency to neglect consideration of the promise technology holds in combating intimate partner violence.
Understanding how technology is being misused to facilitate intimate partner violence is critical to its prevention. However, it is equally essential to acknowledge the opportunities technology creates in protecting and empowering victims. The purpose of this article is to explore these opportunities. Importantly, it steers away from victim-blaming, simplistic, and often unhelpful solutions that expect victims to refrain from using technology. Instead, this article views access to the internet as a human right and focuses on innovative uses of technology that can allow victims to maintain their virtual identity while maintaining their online safety.
A systematic review of cognitive distortions in online child sexual exploitation material offenders
The aim of this review was to analyse and synthesize the results of prior research into the cognitive distortions present in online child sexual exploitation material (CSEM) consumers. A systematic search of databases containing peer reviewed articles as well as grey literature was conducted for prior studies involving the cognitions of CSEM offenders using the SPIDER methodology. Twenty articles were identified for inclusion following a full text review and a Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) quality analysis. The instruments used were reviewed and summarized, and the level of endorsement present in the measured characteristics was analysed. The study's findings show that overall endorsement of cognitive distortions traditionally associated with contact sex offenders by CSEM offenders was low, and that existing sex offender instruments are largely ineffective tools for use with CSEM offenders. Newer assessment instruments built specifically for online offenders show promise, with overall moderate endorsements present in tools such as the Cognitions on Internet Sexual Offending scale (CISO), but additional research is needed to validate this approach.
On alcohol disinhibition and inhibition: The intricate relationship between oxidative stress and behavior
Alcohol use is known to result in disinhibition. However, evidence suggests that alcohol consumption could also result in inhibition. Several hypotheses have been proposed for this confounding alcohol-induced behavior, but none explains it adequately at the level of the brain. In this paper, oxidative stress is put forth as the underlying cause of alcohol toxicity and behavioral impairments. The implications of this understanding and how oxidative stress influences behavior in obesity, diabetes, psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases and during hot weather are discussed.
The object is the message: sports, violence, and throwing objects onto fields
Violence in sports in general is well documented in the research literature, including violence among specific audiences, and its manifestations cover diverse categories of dysfunctional behaviors worldwide. The current research offers a focused examination of the practice of throwing objects onto playing fields, with the aim of gaining in-depth understanding of the motives of the object throwers, and as a by-product, to identify and categorize the types of objects thrown, and the circumstances and contexts in which they are thrown.
Analysis of in-depth interviews with fans who reported throwing objects onto sports fields indicates that throwing objects onto the field constitutes a practice that is used to reinforce a team's boundaries and its stress its differentiation from other teams. Fans consider this practice as a sacrifice they perform for the team, and the objects that are thrown are not randomly selected, in that they express a message that the fans wish to convey.
Findings of the current study indicate that the practice throwing objects onto sports fields is driven by three main motives, each of which is associated with the use of distinct objects that are thrown onto the field. Throwing objects onto fields functions as a practice of protest (against the team players or the referee, reflecting frustration), as a practice of ownership (primarily against the rival team, in an effort to influence the game), and as a practice of superiority (again, primarily with the aim of humiliating the rival team).
Improving the assessment of risk for imminent aggression in older adults in residential facilities
Aggressive behavior by older adults living in residential facilities occurs commonly, and negatively impacts caregivers, other residents, and sometimes visitors. A precondition of aggression prevention efforts is accurate identification of high-risk individuals and interactions. To this end, elucidation of early warning signs and specification of proximal causes, processes and high-risk interactions is critical. Structured risk assessment instruments have been shown to improve prediction of imminent aggression in inpatient mental health care settings, and these instruments have been applied to various other populations and settings; however, there is little evidence regarding their validity in older adult populations. This paper reviews literature that has sought to identify the proximal causes and processes associated with aggressive behavior in older adults; this includes premorbid personality, cognitive impairment, language impairment, social functioning, mental health, functional dependency, sensory impairments, and pain. Given that the proximate causes and processes leading to aggression in older adults seem to differ in subtle ways from acute mental health inpatients, further examination (and possible modification) of existing risk assessment instruments for use in older adults is warranted. This paper identifies six factors that may improve utility and predictive validity when applying extant risk assessment instruments with older adults in residential facilities: confusion/disorientation, resistiveness to care, social disengagement, fear, symptoms of depression, and uncontrolled pain or discomfort.
A systematic literature review of intimate partner violence victimisation: An inclusive review across gender and sexuality
The traditional view of intimate partner violence (IPV) is that the perpetrator is male and the victim is female (Dobash, Dobash, Wilson & Daly, 1992). As a result of this, most research into victimisation experiences appears to be conducted with female victims of IPV (Morin, 2014), and research with male victims, and victims from the LGBTQ+ community is less common. The main aim of the current research was to conduct a systematic literature review to synthesise the literature base of IPV victimisation experiences to ascertain how abuse is experienced, and the effects of that abuse. The secondary aim was to investigate the prevalence of different victim groups, across gender and sexuality, in current research studies. The review highlighted that victims of IPV experience several different types of abuse and the negative mental and physical health outcomes associated with that abuse are significant. Additionally, it was found that the large majority of research studies included in the review were conducted with female victims in opposite-sex relationships, and were quantitative and cross-sectional in nature. The implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are put forward.
Seeing red' A systematic review of the evidence for attentional biases to threat-relevant stimuli in propensity to reactive aggression
Psychological models of aggression have suggested that propensity to aggressive behaviour, especially reactive aggression (RA), may be associated with attentional biases to threat or hostile stimuli. Findings to date are inconsistent, but have often treated aggression as a general construct. This review aimed to evaluate the evidence for a specific association of such attentional biases in propensity to RA, excluding populations with known attention processing abnormalities. A systematic search of the literature was undertaken and twelve eligible experiments, reported in nine studies, were identified. Data were combined and reviewed using narrative synthesis, assessing the presence of differences in attentional processing of threat-relevant stimuli in RA, and specificity of biases to threat-related stimuli and to RA. Preliminary and tentative evidence is presented suggesting that such biases are shown by individuals who exhibit high reactive aggression, which may be specific to this form of aggression. Most studies reporting positive findings reported an attentional bias towards interpersonal threat stimuli, with some evidence that this does not generalise to other types of emotional stimuli. However, positive findings were not reported by all studies, and the small number of studies and varied tasks prevented more nuanced analysis. The review also highlights sampling biases which affect generalisability of findings, particularly beyond the male population.
Elucidating the neurobiology of cyberbullying using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): A hypothesis
Cyberbullying is a prevalent concern around the world. Research shows that interactions online are associated with similar structural correlates and patterns of brain activity to real-world (offline) relationships, and that the brain experiences peer victimisation (e.g., cyberbullying) in the same way that it experiences physical pain. Furthermore, these experiences can become biologically embedded in the physiology of the developing person, thereby increasing their risk of developing mental health problems. With the increasing prevalence of cyberbullying and youth internet usage, there is a pressing need to further understand the brain's response to cyberbullying.
We hypothesise that a unique pattern of brain activation is associated with cyberbullying and can be identified using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (tbfMRI). However, there is a dearth of research regarding cyberbullying and no fMRI paradigm exists in a real-time situation such as observing a cyberbullying scenario. Here, we propose a tbfMRI protocol we have developed specifically for this purpose.
This paper will describe a tbfMRI protocol that can be used to investigate the hypothesis. The overall aim of such a protocol is to elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings of cyberbullying by exploring the brain responses in passive cyber-bystanders (those who witness cyberbullying). This would be the first research to use fMRI to examine brain activation in cyberbystanders, and will bring us closer to understanding the various neurobiological underpinnings that may be associated with cyber-victim/bully status and outcomes.
The association between psychopathy and delinquency in juveniles: A three-level meta-analysis
Psychopathy has repeatedly been linked with delinquency and criminal recidivism of adults. With the increase of studies examining psychopathic traits in juveniles, it is important to also study this association in juveniles to increase the effectiveness of preventive interventions for juvenile delinquency.
The primary aim of the present meta-analysis was to examine the association between psychopathic traits and delinquency in juveniles. The second aim was to examine which factors (i.e., type of delinquency, type of psychopathic trait, and other study- and participant characteristics) moderate the association between psychopathy and juvenile delinquent behavior.
The data were analyzed in three-level meta-analytic models.
In total, 87 studies were included, which used 74 independent samples and reported on 358 effect sizes. Psychopathy was moderately and positively associated with juvenile delinquency (r = 0.24, p < .0001). This overall association was not influenced by type of delinquency. However, stronger effect sizes were found for impulsivity traits than for callous unemotional traits.
Psychopathy in juveniles is associated with current and future offense behavior. Therefore, assessing psychopathy in juveniles is important for strengthening intervention efforts targeting juvenile delinquency.
Life course persistent antisocial behavior silver anniversary
In 1993 Terrie Moffitt published a paper that proposed a dual developmental taxonomy of antisocial behavior. The paper triggered a cascade of research on types of criminal offending, thereby making it one of the most researched and most influential of all developmental theories of antisocial behavior. The silver anniversary of the paper's publication seems a fitting time to review the status of the life-course-persistent (LCP) group who Moffitt suggested would enable researchers to learn more about the etiology of severe, persistent antisocial behavior from studying this group than from studying the group that had its onset of antisocial behavior in adolescence. The LCP group was hypothesized to consist of a relatively few males whose early-onset of severe antisocial behavior would persist into adulthood and had its origins in neurodevelopmental deficits interacting with various environmental risk factors. This review assessed the evidence supporting these hypotheses and reviewed the findings for early identification of the LCP group—a topic that was only modestly addressed in 1993. Lastly, the paper discussed what is one of most significant impacts of the 1993 article, providing impetus to the early-years crime prevention movement.
Cyberbullying: Concepts, theories, and correlates informing evidence-based best practices for prevention
Emerging evidence has revealed that many characteristics of cyberbullying—its definition, prevalence rates, risk and protective factors, outcomes, and prevention strategies—are related and yet somewhat unique from traditional bullying. The ubiquity of technology in the lives of youth presents an opportunity for individuals to intentionally and repetitively harm others, 24 h per day, sometimes with complete anonymity, and often without consequence. This is concerning given the high rates of psychopathology associated with cybervictimization, over and above, traditional bullying. Given the current state of the field, this literature review provides a critical synthesis of the extant knowledge concerning (1) a definition of cyberbullying; (2) theories explaining cyberbullying; (3) prevalence rates; (4) a brief developmentally-focused overview of adolescents and their online use; (5) risk and protective factors; (6) negative psycho-social outcomes, over and above traditional bullying; and (7) a brief overview of prevention and intervention programming with information for key stakeholders. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Omega-3 fatty acids in cause, prevention and management of violence in schizophrenia: Conceptualization and application
Schizophrenia is a disabling neurological disorder. Patients with this disease are at higher risk to violence. This paper reviewed the recent literatures with respect to the heterogeneous nature of the abnormalities and pathophysiological and biological risk markers that link to violent behavior in patients with schizophrenia with a particular interest in lipid metabolism. We have focused on altered lipid profile including polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may have attributed to the development of aggressive behavior in patients with schizophrenia. We addressed questions on how aberrant lipid metabolism affects brain structure and function, and how lipids modulate neurotransmission activity during progression of this devastating disease. Many clinical studies have demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids may reduce transition rate to psychosis and serve as additive to reduce the violence. We postulate that the beneficial effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on violence may act through modulating neuronal membrane lipid structure and neurotransmission. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms how these pathways modulate aggression may facilitate development of strategies to prevent, ameliorate or reduce the manifestation of violence.
Why we cannot explain cross-cultural differences in risk assessment
The prediction and explanation of crime currently relies predominantly upon the concept of dynamic risk factors (DRF). Evidence suggests that DRF vary across cultures with respect to their prevalence and their predictive validity (e.g., Olver, Stockdale, & Wormith, 2014). What remains unclear is whether the observed differences can be explained by real cultural differences in the causes of crime; and if this is the case, how does culture influence this' We suggest that confusion arises due to conceptual problems with DRF and their measurement. Because DRF are vague, composite, and value-laden constructs researchers are unable to minimize or control for the occurrence of construct or item bias when scores on risk measures are compared across cultures. This makes any further interpretation and adjustment to assessment or intervention unwarranted. If we do not know whether or how DRF cause violence within the cultural context of their development, we cannot possibly hope to explain this relationship in another culture. We suggest that there is a pressing need to provide coherent theories for research, risk assessment and treatment in the future. We will discuss possible ways forward in this paper.
Improving approaches in psychotherapy and domestic violence interventions for perpetrators from marginalized ethnic groups
The major goal of this paper is to review the existing therapeutic approaches in domestic violence perpetrator interventions by illustrating their effectiveness in reducing and ending the violent behaviour of men from marginalized ethnic groups. The paper aims to discuss how services can efficiently respond to historically marginalized ethnic perpetrators' needs and circumstances based on their social and cultural contexts. This article reviews literature about the success of domestic violence intervention approaches among marginalized ethnic group perpetrators. While each intervention approach highlights key practices for revealing violent behaviour, the combination of integrative approaches and culturally-sensitive strategies appear to be more effective for perpetrators from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds. This article contributes to debates about culturally-sensitive approaches by discussing the importance of professionals' skills for enhancing marginalized ethnic perpetrators' motivations to remain engaged in the intervention process. It recommends a number of key culturally-specific strategies for this purpose.
Racial and ethnic differences in bullying: Review and implications for intervention
Despite increased research on bullying over the past few decades, researchers still have little understanding of how bullying differentially affects racial and ethnic minority and immigrant youth. To facilitate efforts to better evaluate the impact of bullying among racial and ethnic minority youth and improve interventions, we integrated research from multiple disciplines and conducted a systematic search to review relevant cross-cultural research on the prevalence of bullying, risk and protective factors, and differences in behaviors and outcomes associated with bullying in these populations. Studies measuring differences in bullying prevalence by racial and ethnic groups are inconclusive, and discrepancies in findings may be explained by differences in how bullying is measured and the impact of school and social environments. Racial and ethnic minorities and immigrants are disproportionately affected by contextual-level risk factors associated with bullying (e.g., adverse community, home, and school environments), which may moderate the effects of individual-level predictors of bullying victimization or perpetration (e.g., depressive symptoms, empathy, hostility, etc.) on involvement and outcomes. Minority youth may be more likely to perpetrate bullying, and are at much higher risk for poor health and behavioral outcomes as a result of bias-based bullying. At the same time, racial and ethnic minorities and immigrants may be protected against bullying involvement and its negative consequences as a result of strong ethnic identity, positive cultural and family values, and other resilience factors. Considering these findings, we evaluate existing bullying interventions and prevention programs and propose directions for future research.
Risk factors for elder abuse and neglect: A review of the literature
Elder abuse is a global problem gaining recognition due to its severe impact on victims and the ageing population. Increased recognition has led to the investigation of perpetrator and victim characteristics that increase the risk of elder abuse. The identification of such risk factors can assist practitioners in preventing abuse, determining the risk of continued elder abuse and, where factors are dynamic, can be targets for risk management. This literature review identifies and describes perpetrator and victim risk factors for elder abuse with the goal of informing professional practice and providing the basis for an empirically derived risk assessment instrument for elder abuse. Electronic searches identified 198 studies that met the eligibility criteria. The studies reviewed provide evidence supporting eight risk factors related to the perpetrator that increase their risk of continued elder abuse and eight victim vulnerability factors that place the victim at heightened risk of elder abuse. Hypotheses raised by researchers to account for the associations are outlined. The practical utility of the risk and vulnerability factors are described. The need for and approach to developing a structured method to assess and manage elder abuse risk based on the empirically supported risk and vulnerability factors is discussed.
Public significance statement
Empirically supported dynamic risk factors for elder abuse are identifiable for perpetrators and victims of abuse in the existing research literature. These risk factors can be utilised by professionals to inform their practice and target risk management efforts.
The grooming of children for sexual abuse in religious settings: Unique characteristics and select case studies
This article examines the sexual grooming of children and their caregivers in a wide variety of religious settings. We argue that unique aspects of religion facilitate institutional and interpersonal grooming in ways that often differ from forms of manipulation in secular settings. Drawing from Christianity (Catholicism, Protestantism, and Seventh-day Adventism) and various sects (the Children of God, the Branch Davidians, the Fundamentalist Latter-day Saints, a Hindu ashram, and the Devadasis), we show how some religious institutions and leadership figures in them can slowly cultivate children and their caregivers into harmful and illegal sexual activity. A number of uniquely religious characteristics facilitate this cultivation, which includes: theodicies of legitimation; power, patriarchy, obedience, protection, and reverence towards authority figures; victims' fears about spiritual punishments; and scriptural uses to justify adult-child sex.
Correlates of youth violence in low- and middle-income countries: A meta-analysis
The highest rates of serious interpersonal violence occur in low-and-middle income countries (LMICs) especially in Latin America, the Caribbean, and sub–Saharan Africa. However, previous reviews of risk factors for youth violence focused almost entirely on studies from high-income countries (HICs). Rigorous synthesis of evidence is needed for LMICs. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies of youth violence in LMICs, identified by extensive searches in seven languages. Studies reporting correlates of violence perpetration in samples of 100 or more 10–29 year-olds from the general population in LMICs were included in the review. Eighty-six studies including 480,898 individuals from 60 countries were eligible for meta-analysis. Violent outcomes included fighting, carrying a weapon and other interpersonal violent behaviors (e.g. assault). The strongest correlates of youth violence (OR ≥ 2.5) were: male sex, impulsivity, conduct problems, sexual intercourse at an early age, smoking, alcohol use, using illicit drugs, being bullied, suffering criminal victimization, having deviant/delinquent peers, and watching violent television. We conclude that many correlates of youth violence in LMICs are similar to those that have been identified in HICs, but other biological, psychological, and cultural predictors remain to be tested in LMICs. Implications for research and policy are discussed.
Consistently inconsistent: A systematic review of the measurement of pornography use
Research indicates that pornography use is now practically ubiquitous among males and continually increasing among females. These statistics are concerning in light of decades of research signaling that pornography use may be associated with sexually coercive behavior. Though the relationship between pornography use and sexual coercion has been a focus of concern, the apparent inconsistency in methods used to assess pornography limits the field from approaching a consensus on the strength of this relationship, as well as developing a thorough understanding regarding which aspects of pornography use drive this relationship. The purpose of the current study is to systematically review the literature on pornography use over the last ten years. This review will provide an updated examination of the operationalization and assessment of pornography use in peer-reviewed studies, synthesize the assessment of pornography use from various disciplines, and provide suggestions for the assessment of pornography use moving forward. Results of this review will serve as a potential guideline for the improvement of methodologies used to assess pornography use, and to facilitate movement towards more consistent methodological approaches to strengthen research examining the relationship between pornography use and sexual coercion.
Cyber dating abuse (CDA): Evidence from a systematic review
Youth use a variety of digital tools to initiate, develop, and maintain a dating relationship. By doing so, youth become more accessible and vulnerable to interpersonal intrusiveness, which can promote certain forms of victimization, such as Cyber Dating Abuse (CDA). The present study provides a systematic review aimed to identify the studies that have been developed on youth CDA, describing their methodology, main objectives and findings, as well the constructs used. We identified 44 studies that met our inclusion criteria. Research on CDA has less than a decade and has mainly been developed in North America. Studies focused on the prevalence rates, the relation between CDA and other variables, and on developing and validating measures. Prevalence rates were variable, which was mainly due to the different methodological characteristics of the studies, such as the measure, participants' demographics, and the time lag of assessment. Nine tools were validated with, in general, diverse factor solutions. CDA was related to a wide range of individual variables and others types of interpersonal violence (e.g., offline dating violence, cyberbullying), but it is unknown if these variables are risk factors or consequences of CDA, since the majority of the studies used cross-sectional designs.
Why theory matters in correctional psychology
Effective and ethical psychological practice relies on good science, and good science takes theory construction very seriously, as seriously as data collection. There is little point in developing valid research designs and sophisticated data analytic techniques if the ideas driving research are mistaken or trivial. In this paper I explore the problem of theoretical illiteracy for correctional psychological research and practice. First, I discuss why theory is important in science and the dangers of ignoring it. Second, I review the role of theory in addressing the myriad of practical problems facing human beings. Third, I outline three strategies to increase researchers and practitioners' appreciation of theory construction and development: adopting a more comprehensive model of scientific method, epistemic iteration, and promoting model pluralism. Fourth, I take an example of a core concept from correctional psychology, that of dynamic risk factors, and demonstrate how the above strategies can be used to rectify problems with this construct. Finally, I discuss the research, practice and normative implications of my approach to addressing theoretical illiteracy.
The role of income inequality on factors associated with male physical Intimate Partner Violence perpetration: A meta-analysis
This study examines the influence of income inequality on risk markers for Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in countries with low and high income inequality measured by the GINI index. Examining male perpetration of IPV, we used meta-analytic procedures to learn if income inequality moderated the strength of the relationship between well-established risk markers and IPV. We found that young age, relationship dissatisfaction, violence towards non-family members, and emotional abuse perpetration were significantly stronger risk markers for countries with high income inequality than for countries with low income inequality. We also found that having experienced trauma was a significantly stronger risk marker for countries with low income inequality than for countries with high income inequality. We also ran additional analyses between high and low income inequality countries excluding research conducted in the United States. Here we found that perpetrating emotional abuse, relationship dissatisfaction, and witnessing IPV in family of origin were all significantly stronger risk markers in high income inequality countries compared to low income inequality countries Our findings suggest that income inequality impacts risk markers for male IPV perpetration.
The effect of mindfulness practice on aggression and violence levels in adults: A systematic review
Violence and aggression represent a serious problem, with significant cost and impact at individual and societal level. There has been increasing interest in the potential of mindfulness interventions to decrease levels of violence and aggression. This paper systematically reviews the evidence to assess the effectiveness of mindfulness interventions for the reduction of violence and aggression levels. Five electronic databases were searched, and methods followed published guidance for systematic reviews. Studies that used a mindfulness intervention and measured outcomes of aggression and violence in adult populations were included. The Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies was utilised to evaluate the quality of included studies. Twenty-two studies met the eligibility criteria, including fourteen randomised studies, three non-randomised studies and five cohort studies. The interventions investigated included mindfulness, acceptance and commitment therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy and yoga with meditation.
Overall, the results suggest that mindfulness-based interventions, with the possible exception of DBT, may be effective in reducing aggression and violence. They also suggest that mindfulness may relate to the processes of aggression through emotion regulation. However, papers were of variable quality, with weaknesses in both methodology and the reporting of data. Further good quality controlled studies with full and transparent reporting are needed to confirm these results, and to explore the elements of mindfulness which interact with mechanisms of aggression.
Do adult males with antisocial personality disorder (with and without co-morbid psychopathy) have deficits in emotion processing and empathy' A systematic review
A lack of concern for the feelings, needs or suffering of others and lack of remorse after hurting or mistreating others are key characteristics of Antisocial Personality Disorder and suggest that impaired emotion processing and empathy may contribute to antisocial behaviour. Whilst psychopathy is more commonly associated with an absence of empathy and emotional affect, the nature of emotion processing and empathy deficits specific to adult male ASPD populations with and without co-morbid psychopathy has not been systematically reviewed.
To determine the nature of emotion processing and empathy deficits specific to adult male ASPD populations with and without co-morbid psychopathy.
We conducted a literature search across seven electronic databases and a range of grey literature sites, hand-searched reference lists of relevant papers and contacted fourteen authors of published studies related to this topic. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied and quality assessments undertaken on eligible studies.
Searches located 10,217 records and 205 were fully assessed. 22 were identified as suitable for inclusion in this review and 19 reported evidence of emotion processing deficits in ASPD groups with and without co-morbid psychopathy.
This review found no evidence of empathy deficits in ASPD groups with or without co-morbid psychopathy and only limited evidence of diminished startle reactivity in those with ASPD alone. In contrast, ASPD groups with co-morbid psychopathy were found to exhibit aberrant patterns of affective reactivity and difficulty when processing negative/aversive stimuli which lends support to the notion that these groups may be differentiated in terms of emotional dysfunction. However, as the majority of reviewed studies employed ASPD groups that included participants with co-morbid psychopathy/psychopathic traits and did not delineate effects for ASPD groups with and without co-morbid psychopathy, the degree to which emotion processing deficits were mediated by co-morbid psychopathy or evident in ASPD alone could not be established and further research to compare emotion processing and empathy in both groups is required before firm conclusions can be drawn about the extent of overlap between these populations and/or the differences that exist between them.
Approaching the study of cyberbullying towards social workers from a systems perspective
To date, cyberbullying research has been conducted without coherent, shared conceptual and operational definitions and with no clear, agreed theoretical ground. Hence, there is great confusion as to how to classify, measure and analyze this phenomenon. In response, this article proposes applying the systems approach developed in safety engineering, as a possible theoretical framework for investigation into cyberbullying. Central to the systems approach is the conceptualization of the relationship between people and technology as a joint system, with the focus of exploration being on how it interacts with the wider environment. Looking at cyberbullying through the systems lens dramatically broadens the analysis of the factors that influence behavior, with greater attention paid to the social arrangements. The current article illustrates how the core systems concepts of “socio-technical systems,” “emergent,” “multiple levels of analysis,” and “local rationality” can be transferred to the context of client cyberbullying towards professionals – specifically social workers – and contribute new knowledge and understanding to what seems to be developing into a serious problem.
Fight and flight: Examining putative links between social anxiety and youth aggression
Somewhat surprisingly, social anxiety has been linked with aggressive behavior in adults. Among youth, this connection has been demonstrated with anxiety symptoms more broadly. This review extends previous work by evaluating this association specifically with social anxiety in the child and adolescent literature. Given the complexities of aggressive behavior, the review is organized by its various forms (relational and physical) and functions (reactive and proactive). Findings from sixteen identified studies are suggestive of links between social anxiety and reactive and relational forms of aggression. Albeit more tenuous, there appear to be associations with physical aggression as well. Overall, though suggestive of connections between social anxiety and aggression, confidence in the findings is attenuated by the relatively small number of relevant studies combined with inconsistent gender findings. Before suggesting directions for further study, we propose putative dysfunctional biological, emotional, and cognitive processes as factors that may underlie associations between social anxiety and these particular forms of aggression. Future research should target differences in age, gender, relationship type, and anxiety subtype. Determining the extent to which these associations may be attributable to comorbid pathology such as depression or a broader internalizing syndrome is also important.
Childhood and adolescent animal cruelty and subsequent interpersonal violence in adulthood: A review of the literature
Animal cruelty has been a growing concern worldwide, and is broadly defined as all socially unacceptable behaviors that are intentionally perpetrated to cause unnecessary pain, suffering, distress, and/or death to an animal. This review synthesizes more than 87 research studies identified through online databases and manual search of specific studies. Findings denote that beating, hitting, or kicking, shooting, strangling or smothering, stabbing, and sexual abusing are reported to be the commonly used methods in abusing animals. In addition, children and adolescents abused animals for different reasons; and those who exposed to domestic violence are likely to have higher rates of animal cruelty, which in turn increases their subsequent propensity to engage in delinquent behavior. Male children and adolescents are more likely than their female counterparts to commit acts of animal cruelty. It is noteworthy that early onset of animal cruelty acts is suggested to be predictive of subsequent violent or antisocial behavior. Arguably, bestiality is an act of animal abuse, or specifically as interspecies sexual abuse. More importantly, this review has noted a strong support for the increased risk of children and adolescents who commit animal cruelty to perpetrate interpersonal violence against human victims in later life. Five key theoretical models (i.e., social learning theory, frustration theory, deviance generalization hypothesis, graduation hypothesis, and sexual polymorphous theory) are discussed to explain the link between childhood and/or adolescent animal cruelty and subsequent violence against human victims in adulthood. Implications for research and future research are discussed.
A systematic review of comprehensive interventions for substance abuse: Focus on victimization
Violence victimization is common among men and women who use substances and is associated with co-occurring health issues such as PTSD, depression and HIV. Substance use interventions, therefore, should include integrated components that are designed to address co-occurring health issues among victimized substance-using individuals. This systematic review synthesized the evidence on efficacy of comprehensive, integrated, multicomponent interventions for victimized substance-using individuals. The efficacy of integrated multicomponent intervention strategies was assessed for the following syndemic conditions: mental health, substance misuse, violence, and HIV risk. Seventeen studies were identified. Examples of effective components were empowerment strategies for violence, mindfulness-based stress reduction for mental health, social cognitive skill building for addressing HIV risk and psychoeducation for substance misuse. Although in this review, some components were found to be effective, we identified methodological limitations of included studies which calls for more rigorous research in this area. Further, there is lack of evidence base for multicomponent interventions for victimized substance-using individuals in developing countries. Additional studies are needed to establish rigorous evidence base for multicomponent interventions for victimized substance using individuals that help them cope effectively with their trauma of violence and address their needs.
Persistent material hardship and childhood physical aggression
Some developmental models of childhood aggression deny any influence of socioeconomic status (SES), while others stress a more central role. We argue that greater attention to persistent material hardship (i.e., inability to provide for basic needs) may enhance the centrality of SES in developmental approaches. We analyze a longitudinal sample of children in the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, and examine whether persistent material hardship shapes patterns of childhood aggression. We find that while the majority of children are insulated, some experience multiple, enduring hardships. More importantly, experiencing a single, persistent hardship during the period of childhood increases the likelihood of aggression by 4.8% among males and 6.4% among females, a magnitude that is comparable to the influence of impulsivity. Findings warrant greater attention to the consequences of material hardship in theoretical models and life course research that goes beyond the traditionally-examined indicators of SES.
Impulsivity and aggression: A meta-analysis using the UPPS model of impulsivity
Trait impulsivity has long been proposed to play a role in aggression, but the results across studies have been mixed. One possible explanation for the mixed results is that impulsivity is a multifaceted construct and some, but not all, facets are related to aggression. The goal of the current meta-analysis was to determine the relation between the different facets of impulsivity (i.e., negative urgency, positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking) and aggression. The results from 93 papers with 105 unique samples (N = 36, 215) showed significant and small-to-medium correlations between each facet of impulsivity and aggression across several different forms of aggression, with more impulsivity being associated with more aggression. Moreover, negative urgency (r = 0.24, 95% [0.18, 0.29]), positive urgency (r = 0.34, 95% [0.19, 0.44]), and lack of premeditation (r = 0.23, 95% [0.20, 0.26]) had significantly stronger associations with aggression than the other scales (rs < 0.18). Two-stage meta-analytic structural equation modeling showed that these effects were not due to overlap among facets of impulsivity. These results help advance the field of aggression research by clarifying the role of impulsivity and may be of interest to researchers and practitioners in several disciplines.
Examining the relationships between impulsivity, aggression, and recidivism for prisoners with antisocial personality disorder
Impulsivity impacts multiple life domains and is related to criminal and problematic behaviors. In forensic contexts, impulsivity and aggression are often associated with psychiatric issues. Personality disorders are related to worse prognosis, increased relapse, and damage to relationships. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of psychopathy, impulsivity, and aggression on recidivism, and to investigate the relationships between these dimensions in prisoners with and without Antisocial Personality Disorder. The forensic sample included inmates with (n = 50) or without Antisocial Personality Disorder (n = 50). We measured psychopathic traits with the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), impulsivity with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and aggression with the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale (IPAS). There were significant between-group differences regarding premeditated aggression and attentional impulsivity. For inmates with antisocial personality disorder, impulsive aggression was related to recidivism (number of times in jail). Their level of psychopathy was related to premeditated aggression and motor impulsivity. Impulsive aggression, like attentional impulsivity, was related to recidivism only for inmates with antisocial personality disorder. In conclusion, psychopathy is associated with recidivism; moreover, impulsivity and aggression are central to recidivism for these individuals.
Negotiating in the skies of Hong Kong: The efficacy of the Behavioral Influence Stairway Model (BISM) in suicidal crisis situations
Law enforcement agencies often deal with dangerous, difficult, and disordered individuals by applying the theory and practice of tactical negotiation composed of a unique application of communication techniques aimed at obtaining voluntary compliance. Known as hostage or crisis negotiation, law enforcement tactical negotiation (LETN) has shown to be an effective technique for resolving barricaded hostage and crisis situations, kidnappings, and suicidal incidents. Over the years, there have been several models of LETN, however; most of them are based on the assumption that the person is rational and views the officer as credible; however, in situations where people are in crisis, emotions control their actions rather than reason. Therefore, being successful requires the officer to return the subject to a rational state of mind and establish trust. If either of these, elements are missing, then traditional negotiation will most likely fail in gaining voluntary compliance in a timely manner. This is especially true with suicidal persons who have exceeded their ability to cope with their situation and believe that no one will help them. The Behavioral Influence Stairway Model (BISM) operates on the premise that a state of personal crisis occurs when coping and social support mechanisms fail and that to end the crisis, at least one of these elements must be restored. In these situations, the BISM provides the method by which the officer re-establishes social support through effectively dealing with emotions (thus returning the individual to a rational state of mind) and demonstrating empathy (thus obtaining trust).
In Hong Kong, the Police Negotiation Cadre (PNC) routinely deals with a unique form of suicide where persons in crisis frequently choose jumping off high-rise buildings as their preferred means of suicide. Unlike in the United States, where a significant number of suicides involve barricaded individuals with firearms, most LETN in Hong Kong is accomplished face-to-face, since officer safety relating to firearms is atypical. Despite these differences in structure, culture, and language, the BISM is routinely used to successfully resolve suicidal situations in Hong Kong, based on the theory that emotions and relationship needs are universal and not contingent on context. Therefore, this article will present an updated version of the BISM and extend the principles of the BISM cross-culturally by providing evidence of its efficacy in negotiating with suicidal persons who threaten to jump from multi-story buildings in Hong Kong.
The role of infant socialization and self-control in understanding reactive-overt and relational aggression: A 15-year study
The present study employed parallel analyses to develop a greater understanding of the relationships between infant socialization (maternal sensitivity and home quality), early childhood self-control (attentional focusing, inhibitory control, gratification delay, and self-control), and measures of reactive-overt and relational aggression, assessed from ages 8.5 to 15 years. Self-reported, mother reported, and observational data were employed from a national sample of N = 1364 children (the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care and Youth Development Study). Findings provided evidence that positive infant socialization during the first two years of life positively predicted self-control that in turn negatively predicted both reactive-overt and relational aggression at age 8.5 years. In addition, socialization effects also maintained positive direct effects on continued developmental changes in both measures of aggression at age 10.5 years (relational), 11.5 years (reactive-overt and relational), and 15 years (reactive-overt and relational). Self-control negatively predicted developmental changes in both measures of aggression at 11.5 years. These findings highlight the long-term developmental effects of positive infant socialization experiences for the developmental course of reactive-overt and relational aggression, but also the salience of self-regulatory capacities in understanding the etiology of and ongoing developmental changes of aggressive behaviors.
A life history approach to understanding juvenile offending and aggression
Life history theory has been used to understand how harsh and unpredictable environments contribute to risk behaviors. The theory suggests that exposure to negative environments leads individuals to adopt a “fast” life strategy, which is hypothesized to make individuals more likely to engage in risky behavior that is associated with immediate rewards. Using data from a sample of 1216 justice-involved male youth, we defined distinct groups of youth with a “fast” versus “slow” life strategy, based on their scores on measures of sensation seeking, impulse control, future orientation, consideration of others, and suppression of aggression. A logistic regression was used to test how different environmental factors predicted LH strategy group membership. Having a fast strategy was associated with greater victimization, higher parental hostility, and lower quality home environments. Growth curve models were used to examine group differences in offending and aggression over five years. Youth with a fast life strategy engaged in more violent and non-violent offending, as well as more relational and physical aggression. Although there were significant decreases in these behaviors within both groups over the five years, these group differences remained consistent over time.
Government political structure and violent death rates: A longitudinal analysis of forty-three countries, 1960–2008
Currently, little is known regarding the effect of regime type on mortality on a global level. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of regime type on the rates of violent deaths (homicide, suicide, and combined rates).
Three measures of democracy were used to quantify regime type, the independent variable. Homicide and suicide rates were obtained from the World Health Organization. Multivariate conditional fixed-effects models were run to examine associations between regime characteristics and logged rates of homicide, suicide, and violent deaths. Models were adjusted for unemployment and economic inequality.
Nations that scored higher on democracy indices, especially emerging democracies, experienced increased mortality due to violence. Homicide and suicide were divergent, showing a different time course and decreasing statistical power as a combined variable. Unemployment and inequality were associated with higher violence-related mortality.
Homicide and suicide appear to be more prevalent in democracies. Future analyses should examine which aspects of democracies lead to higher rates of violent death and should seek to use independently collected mortality data.
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Author(s): Alex R. Piquero
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