American Journal of Dance Therapy

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Psychologie, Sportwissenschaft, Sportpraxis, Sportpsychologie
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American Journal of Dance Therapy informs the international mental health community on the latest findings in dance therapy theory research and clinical practice by presenting original contributions case material reviews and studies by leading practitioners and educators in the field. The journal reflecting the dramatic expansion of the profession over the last half-century publishes timely articles on working with new populations changing goals innovative techniques and new methods of training. Current professional issues outcome research and assessment tools are also examined and evaluated. This biannual forum encourages dance/movement therapists and allied mental health professionals to test their theoretical premises and share their ideas. It is a valuable resource for administrators psychiatrists psychologists social workers and creative arts therapists in the disciplines of music art and drama.
Meine Notizen
Correction to: Tango Dance Can Reduce Distress and Insomnia in People with Self-Referred Affective Symptoms
There were some errors presented in Table 2 in the original article. Values have been corrected in the version of Table 2 presented here.
Past, Present, Future: A Program Development Project Exploring Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome (PTSS) Using Experiential Education and Dance/Movement Therapy Informed Approaches

This program development project integrated dance/movement therapy concepts and Dr. Joy DeGruy’s Post traumatic slave syndrome (PTSS) theory, with the goal of helping African American adolescents in Chicago’s Roseland neighborhood understand, explore and heal from PTSS. The Delphi Method was used to gather information from collaborators via individual interviews and follow up surveys. Collaborators—all experienced with African American adolescents in the Roseland neighborhood and similar neighborhoods—included one African American dance/movement therapist, one program developer, an arts and education director, and an arts education manager. Information sought from collaborators was guided by a Theory Logic Model resulting in clearly identified inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes and impacts. The resulting program, titled Healing in Motion, consists of ten modules focused on healing domains from DeGruy’s PTSS model. Each module uses DMT and creative arts approaches for addressing the healing domains. Practical strengths-based activities support healing and positive community engagement. Program adaptations, evaluation suggestions and supplemental activities beyond the current program are suggested.

ADTA 2018 Keynote Plenary Panel: Power and Privilege Within the ADTA
Editors’ Note
Applying Critical Consciousness to Dance/Movement Therapy Pedagogy and the Politics of the Body

Dance/movement therapy (DMT) is a profession and cultural community with its own habitus, assumptions, and biases. Because of the profession’s progressive and unique embodied-dance approach to psychotherapy, the lack of social critique of the inherent ‘whiteness’ of its epistemology can be overlooked in the process of education and training of DMT professionals. The DMT norms, that are not explicitly stated, may manifest in practice as unintended oppression of trainees as well as peers. Drawing from critical race feminist theory and critical pedagogy, we offer an embodied dialectical approach to exploring the power dynamics that exist within the field of DMT education and training in the US. We raise case examples of heteropatriarchal European-American epistemology in DMT and offer counternarratives and frameworks for humanizing the admissions process, curriculum, and the facilitation of classes and/or supervision of practica and internship. We believe that a critically conscious DMT education and training opportunity leads to healing, liberation, and celebratory social action.

Dance/Movement Therapy in Cross-Cultural Practice: Fostering Assertiveness with Torture Survivors

A U.S. dance/movement therapist’s report on case histories of three adult African survivors of human rights abuse, this narrative addresses approaches taken to foster assertiveness following exposure to torture and trafficking. The author points to dilemmas experienced in working cross-culturally, including the risk of therapist ethnocentricity in promoting values of independence and self-sufficiency that may be culturally inappropriate for survivors from traditional cultures of the global South. Sue’s framework for considering worldview by examining the effects of differences between therapist and client in terms of “locus of control” and “locus of responsibility” is highlighted for its usefulness to mental health providers who aim to avoid imposing individualist assumptions on persons from collectivist environments.

Grace and Grit: A Meditation on Dance Movement Therapy’s Locations and Aspirations

This article examines the concepts of grace and grit, as they apply to the field of dance movement therapy. By understanding these concepts in the moving body, we can find inspiration for our field. As well, we can more deeply understand how these terms inform both our personal and social activism.

Development, Execution and Acceptance of a Manualized Dance/Movement Therapy Treatment Protocol for the Clinical Trial in the Treatment of Negative Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning in Schizophrenia

The use of manual-based interventions that aim to improve outcomes and that allow for replication become a research standard in recent years. Currently, the dance/movement therapy English language literature contains few if any works on specific guidelines or models to help researchers conceptualize, develop, pilot, revise and execute treatment protocols. Therefore, this manuscript describes in detail the development of manualized dance/movement therapy treatment protocol for a clinical trial on the negative symptoms and psychosocial functioning in individuals with schizophrenia. It provides a comprehensive description of the step-by-step process of the creation and implementation of the intervention manual. As such it offers a guideline to help researchers conceptualize, develop, pilot, revise and execute the treatment protocol. Feasibility and acceptance findings are included. Discussion of the importance of the use of manualized treatment protocols in dance/movement therapy research and their limitations follows.

The Embodied Teen: A Somatic Curriculum for Teaching Body-Mind Awareness, Kinesthetic Intelligence, and Social and Emotional Skills
Empowerment-Focused Dance/Movement Therapy for Trauma Recovery

Empowerment-Focused Dance/Movement Therapy is a multifaceted approach for healing the emotional and physical impacts of trauma. Dance/movement therapy experiences are introduced for guiding body-based self-discovery and transformative creative expression. The primary goal is to build new psychophysical capacities through expanding expressive freedom, strengthening self-esteem and developing new emotional resources. Based on the theories and methods of dance/movement therapy pioneer, Blanche Evan, this novel evolution of Evan’s methods emphasizes sensitivity to cultural context for healing trauma in the global community. The approach prioritizes emotional safety and the cautious titration of trauma recovery experiences. First developed for sex trafficking survivors and marginalized populations in Kolkata, India, Empowerment-Focused Dance/Movement Therapy is a broadly effective approach for healing trauma.

Breaking Free: One Adolescent Woman’s Recovery from Dating Violence Through Creative Dance

Dating violence against adolescent women can devastate their health and long-term quality of life. While high school programs have been developed to address this worldwide epidemic, somatic antidotes are still not widely utilized despite evidence from the psychophysiology of relational violence trauma that there is an inextricable link between the body and mind and effective recovery requires a holistic approach. Creative dance, derived from dance education, can support female adolescent trauma victims of dating violence to reconnect with physical, mental, and emotional experiences that were severed during traumatic exposure. This qualitative arts-based case study narratively explores one adolescent woman’s experience of creative dance as an intervention for survivors of dating violent relationships. Conceptually, I draw from dance education, Authentic Movement, and Amber Gray’s Restorative Movement Psychotherapy. A feminist lens is utilized in an attempt to address calls to action from previous DMT researchers to tackle oppressive structural forces and increase activism in dance/movement therapy. Findings show that inner-directed dance can therapeutically facilitate restoration after trauma by recovering the social engagement system and decision-making capacity, reducing social isolation, and increasing bodily self-awareness, and self-esteem.

(Re-) Defining Dance/Movement Therapy Fifty Years Hence

The cultural turn of the 1980s suggests re-visiting the definition of Dance Movement Therapy (DMT) for the purposes of understanding the power the language has in shaping the profession. Such re-examination of the original American Dance Therapy Association (ADTA) definition and its historical development reveals an ambivalence that upholds a dualistic view of the profession; a troublesome idea for a practice based in body-mind integration. This paper is not a critique of the ADTA or the field, but is meant to act as a springboard for discourse on how the very description of the work can contribute to level of recognition of the profession.

Editors’ Note
The Meaning of Movement
Seubert, A., & Virdi, P. (eds.): Trauma Informed Approaches to Eating Disorders
Moving Towards Wellness in Long-term Care: Considerations for Dementia-Associated Aggression

Dementia is a debilitating and progressive neurodegenerative condition expected to affect over 13 million Americans by 2050 (Mitchell et al. in N Engl J Med 361:1529–1538, 2009) and 132 million individuals worldwide (Prince et al. in Alzheimer’s Res Ther 8(1):23, 2016). Characterized by cognitive and physical loss and change, and loss of one’s sense of self, this illness significantly impairs the ability to communicate needs and discomfort successfully; aggressive behaviors are common and may affect overall well-being. Dementia-associated aggression often leads to care facility placement, may contribute to care partner burden, and significantly increases healthcare costs. Dance/movement therapy (DMT) influences physical, psychological, and cognitive behavior, supports productive self-expression, and helps to improve quality of life. This article sheds light on some challenges within the long-term care environment and affirms that DMT, as a complementary approach, is a beneficial, cost-efficient, and non-pharmacologic modality for the treatment of dementia-associated aggression for older adults in these settings.

Book Review: Dance/Movement Therapists in Action: A Working Guide to Research Options (3rd Edition)
Embodiment and Eating Disorders: Theory, Research, Prevention and Treatment, edited by Hillary L. McBride and Janelle L. Kwee
Essentials of Dance Movement Psychotherapy: International Perspectives on Theory, Research and Practice
Ghosts in the Bedroom: Embodiment Wishes in Couple Sexuality: Qualitative Research and Practical Application

Theories about embodied knowledge have emphasized the importance of familiarity with the socio-physical aspect of sexuality. The present study examines the kind of embodiment knowledge that contributes to the formation of wishes in intimate physical interaction in the couple relationship. Nine couples (n = 18) participated in 12 sessions of dance/movement therapy for couples (DMT-C). The sessions were documented on video and in personal diaries. Two themes emerged from movement experience: (a) a wish for security and (b) a wish for the partner to be magically compatible. In the discussion section, the contribution the results make to knowledge on physical intimacy will be addressed.

Abstracts from the 2018 Research and Thesis Poster Session of the 53rd Annual American Dance Therapy Association Conference, Salt Lake City, Utah

The Research and Practice Committee of the American Dance Therapy Association (ADTA) has sponsored the research poster session at each annual conference for the past 23 years. The studies represented in the following abstracts were presented at the 2018 Research and Thesis Poster Session of the 53rd Annual ADTA conference in Salt Lake City, Utah and feature a wide range of scholarly works in current dance/movement therapy research. The following sixteen studies have been selected for their quality and contributions to dance/movement therapy literature.

Body Movement Manual for the Assessment and Treatment of Trauma Survivors

Trauma is manifested through the body in different ways, from arousal to freezing, or cessation of movement. Verbal expressions of traumatic experience have long been studied; however, studies of nonverbal responses are scarce. The current paper presents the Movement Assessment and Treatment Manual for Trauma (MAMT). The suggested intervention is based on recent evidence indicating a relationship between the body’s non-verbal expressions and the emotional verbal narratives in people who have experienced a traumatic event. The study, conducted by experienced dance/movement therapists, explored bodily movements while people recount traumatic memories. Results revealed three main bodily movement categories that accompany the verbal narration of a traumatic event: illustrative, rhythmic and regulative movements. The intervention presented is based on the practical implications of the bodily movement categories found to be manifested when a traumatic event is recalled. The MAMT intervention model is illustrated by a case study.

History, Roots and Future Horizons

Presented as a workshop at the 50th anniversary of the founding of the ADTA conference in San Diego, this article describes a workshop that was designed to help participants navigate through multiple identities in dance/movement therapy and psychotherapy. In the article and in the workshop, the authors share their professional journeys and then use movement to guide participants through theirs. Dance/movement therapy originated in the United States in the 1900s through private apprenticeship and master’s level trainings. As the work and training developed internationally, however, some dance/movement therapists began to seek advanced education for psychotherapy and doctoral research, use sophisticated technology, and practice in diverse settings. How will we integrate this new education and how does this shape our professional identities? In an era of changing healthcare reimbursements and new professional choices, it is time to again look at core values and identity of our practice, and help dance movement therapists create professional identities and choices.

Trauma and Restoration: An International Response—The 2018 ADTA International Panel

The 2018 ADTA International Panel presented the work of dance/movement therapists from around the world who are experts in implementing restorative methods and techniques that address the myriad psychological, emotional, and physical symptoms of those suffering from trauma. Panelists were asked to respond to the following questions: What is your specialty in the field of trauma? What is your country’s cultural, political, and social response to trauma issues? What are the specific DMT interventions that you implement as a restorative treatment for trauma? And finally, what tools do you utilize as a DMT clinician to recuperate from working with clients of trauma? Countries represented were Holland, Australia, Canada, United States, Israel, and Germany.

The Effectiveness of Dance/Movement Therapy Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

The use of dance/movement therapy (DMT) as a treatment modality for children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been studied extensively since the 1970s. This systematic review of studies published between 1970 and 2018 aims to (a) verify the quality of DMT and ASD studies using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of DMT interventions for individuals with ASD. Keyword analyses of four electronic databases—Medline, Pubmed, Cinahl, and Springer Link—were used to select the studies examined in this research study, with seven selected according to specific conditions. Two studies after 2016 were identified as having the highest level of evidence at level 2b on the scale of The Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence. Two studies conducted before 1985 were lower than level 4. Five studies after 2015 were found to have either fair or low risk of bias according to the Assessment of Controlled Intervention Studies developed by National Institutes of Health. Two pre-1985 studies were evaluated as having a high risk of bias. While this study found that the quality of DMT and ASD studies has improved in recent years, future research must demonstrate greater scientific rigor in documenting the efficacy of DMT treatment interventions. It also found that imitation (mirroring) interventions helped individuals with ASD improve their social skills.

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